Allergic dermatitis: causes, manifestations, diagnosis, treatment
- 29 Jul 04:00
- Disease Of The Skin
Dermatitis is called inflammatory skin lesions, which occur at the site of influence of chemical or physical factors. In the domestic dermatology school the term "dermatitis" is taken to be identical with the term "contact dermatitis".Skin damage caused byparenteral( injection, inhalation) or oral( through the digestive tract) administration of an allergic component is commonly referred to as toxidermia.
- 1 Causes of allergic dermatitis
- 2 How does allergic dermatitis manifest?
- 3 Methods of diagnosis of allergic dermatitis
- 4 treatment regimens allergic dermatitis
- 4.1 Treatment of allergic dermatitis using recipes of traditional medicine
- 5 Recommendations for patients allergic dermatitis prevention of relapse
- 6 Weather
causes of allergic dermatitis
Causes skin lesions withthe disease is an allergic reaction of the slowed-down type. Various substances serve as allergen:
- Household chemicals.
- Cosmetic and perfumery.
- Some varieties of artificial materials, from which shoes, gloves, etc. are made.
- Different plastics, rubbers, resins.
- Chemical Substances Contained in Plants.
The list of substances that can cause allergic dermatitis is extremely high. To date, more than three thousand different allergens are known and their number is constantly increasing.
The factors that lead to the development of allergic dermatitis are:
From the first contact of the skin with the allergen until the onset of the initial symptoms of allergic dermatitis lasts for at least two weeks. When repeated contact with the allergen, the time of the reaction is reduced to 2-3 days.
It is precisely this slow reaction rate of the body that distinguishes allergic dermatitis from other allergic diseases( for example, from atopic dermatitis), in which the rate of occurrence of symptoms is expressed in minutes.
How does allergic dermatitis manifest?
The disease can be both acute and chronic in chronic form. The course of the disease is determined, as a rule, by the frequency of contact with the substance causing an allergic reaction. The severity of the symptoms depends on the chemical activity of the allergen, as well as on the duration of its contact with the skin.
Typical manifestations of the disease:
- Redness of the skin;
- Appearance of bubbles and formation of wet areas;
- Itching, which may be both mild and very intense.
Symptoms of allergic dermatitis are most often found at the point of contact with the allergen substance, but often the skin is inflamed at a distance from the contact area.
When the chronic course of the disease in places of constant contact with allergens marked thickening of the skin, its dryness, the formation of painful cracks.
Methods for Diagnosing Allergic Dermatitis
Diagnosis is based on visual inspection and analyzes to detect substances causing allergic reactions, dermatitis-provoking
. The clinical picture of the course of allergic dermatitis has features that allow differentiating this disease with simple dermatitis:
- . With allergic dermatitis, the bordersthe affected area is fuzzy.
- The inflammatory process is manifested not only in the contact site, but also in other areas of the skin.
- There are noticeable exudative phenomena in the affected areas, as well as eruptions in the form of bubbles in the place of which eczema is formed, therefore this disease is sometimes called eczema-like dermatitis.
To detect a substance that causes allergic dermatitis, apply special skin tests. As a rule, application tests are used - patch-test.
Such tests look like paper-based plates with a sticky base. On each plate there are tests for dozens of allergens. Tests stick on the cleansed areas of the back skin for two days. In the presence of a patient allergic reaction under the cell with a suitable allergen will appear a slight redness, and in the event of a sharp reaction, a blister may develop. These skin changes do not cause particular anxiety and quickly pass after removing the plate.
Diagnostic tests can be purchased at the pharmacy and applied independently, however, only the doctor can interpret the results correctly. Tests are conducted only during the period of the remission of the disease, before the analysis should exclude the use of drugs containing corticosteroids, not less than 5 days before the tests.
In addition to conducting tests for the detection of an allergen in a patient suspected of having allergic dermatitis, the following tests should be prescribed:
In the presence of indications, tests may be used to check the function of the thyroid gland and the GI tract. This is necessary to exclude the presence of concomitant diseases that can provoke the onset of inflammatory processes on the skin.
Treatment of allergic dermatitis
As a rule, the treatment of allergic dermatitis is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Detection of allergen substances and elimination of contact with them.
- External Therapy aimed at eliminating symptoms and healing of the skin.
- General therapy used in severe illness.
Etiological treatment involves conducting tests and releasing a substance that provokes skin reactions.
Local therapeutic corticosteroids are used in external therapy. Typically, these are ointments or creams that need to be applied to the affected areas 1-2 times a day. Today, modern drugs that do not contain fluoride are used for treatment. This ointment Advantan, Elok, Locode, etc. It is very important to follow the recommendations of the doctor and not exceed the prescribed dose and do not increase the course time independently. In this case, there will be no side effects.
In case of severe allergic dermatitis, an internal corticosteroid is prescribed. To select a preparation and the scheme of its reception should only the doctor, as uncontrolled reception of such medicines can provoke a lot of complications.
For anti-itching and edema treatment, antihistaminics such as Zodac, Zirtek, Tetrin, Claritin and others can be prescribed.
Treatment of allergic dermatitis using traditional medicine recipes
Using folk recipes can help with severe allergic dermatitis.
When choosing a treatment, care must be taken to ensure that the component does not contain components that cause an allergic reaction.
The following recipes help to remove the symptoms of allergic dermatitis:
- Compresses from grated raw potatoes, put on the affected skin.
- Irrigated areas of inflamed skin with broth of oak bark.
- Application of an ointment made from sea buckthorn oil. To prepare such an ointment, mixed seaweed oil of good quality with baby cream or reheated porcine( chicken, goose) fat.
- Compression with Root Infusion False. Infusion is prepared from dry roots and water( ratio 1 to 6), then moisten in infusion gauze and apply to affected areas of the skin. Keep the compress for 15 minutes.
- For intake, you can make a decoction of a mixture of chamomile flowers, three-breeding herbs, blackcurrant currant and red currant. Vegetable raw materials are taken in equal quantities and poured into boiling water( a spoon of a mixture on a glass of water).It is recommended to take half a glass four times a day.
While treating folk remedies, it is not necessary to refuse the use of medicines, since a good effect can only be achieved with the use of integrated therapy.
Recommendations for patients with allergic dermatitis for the prevention of relapses
The most important condition for the recovery and prevention of relapses is the elimination of contact with the allergen. So, if allergy to nickel is discovered, it's worth getting rid of jewelry that includes this metal, do not wear clothes and metal details on the naked body, buy metal products( scissors, knives, combs, etc.) with wooden or plastic pens. Those metal objects that can not be contacted( for example, keys) can be varnished.
In addition, any type of allergy should be followed:
- Before purchasing new cosmetics and household chemicals, carefully examine the composition of the product and refuse to purchase if the allergen substance is detected.
- Avoid wearing synthetic fabrics as well as too tight clothing that refuses friction on the skin.
- Refuse to visit the bath, while taking a shower or bath do not use hard wipes.
- Consideration should be given to choosing food. So, in the presence of an allergic reaction to nickel, you should not eat herring, spinach, legumes, tomatoes, asparagus. You should not buy canned food, and when buying dishes, choose products that do not use nickel
With allergic dermatitis, the prognosis is favorable. For complete treatment, the complete exclusion of contact with the allergen is required.
Difficulties arise when the disease is of a professional nature, that is, the patient is forced to contact the allergen by virtue of his professional activities. In this case, sometimes it is necessary to recommend to the patient to change a kind of occupations that can create great difficulties in a patient's life.