Stroke of the brain: causes, symptoms and treatment
- 28 Jul 06:00
A stroke - these are suddenly revealed shortcomings of blood circulation in a particular area of the brain that lead to local failures in the functioning of the brain and leave behind a persistent defect, called a serious violation of blood circulation in the brain, or, even simpler,stroke.
That is, if you talk about a stroke, then talk about the complicated flow of blood through the vessels of the brain. The reasons for the manifestation of a stroke in humans can actually be several, so there are several types of stroke.
- Causes of Stroke and its Types
- Stroke Risk
- Major Stroke Symptoms
- Stroke Assistance
- Stroke Prevention
- Stroke Diagnosis
- Stroke Treatment
- Recovery Period After Stroke
Causes of a Stroke and its Types
This may be a blockage of one or moreblood vessels responsible for feeding the brain. As a result of this blockage, ischemia is manifested, that is, acute oxygen starvation and acute shortage of the main and most important nutrients.
This type of attack, due to which ischemia appears, is also called ischemic stroke. According to statistics, it is the ischemic type that affects the human brain in 8 out of 10 cases.
The second cause is not a violation, but the most genuine rupture of one or more vessels of the brain, resulting in hemorrhage, that is, hemorrhage in the brain with its accompanying hematoma formation.
This type of stroke also received the proper name - hemorrhagic form. And so, as the ischemic stroke of the brain accounts for 8/2, the remaining 2/10 cases occur on the hemorrhagic view. It is clear that the hemorrhagic form differs from the type of ischemic complicated several times during the course of the course, as well as greater danger.
A brain stroke is not an independent disease, because it occurs as a result of complications after suffering from cardiac, circulatory and vascular diseases. In addition, significant damage to the walls of the vessels and their narrowing can cause and such causes characteristic of modern humans as:
- Cholesterol deposits, or atherosclerotic plaques;
- Arterial hypertension;
- Harmful effects on the brain of nicotine, alcohol or drugs;
- Increased sugar content.
Each of the reasons above is the most popular factor that increases the risk of blood clots and vessel clogging. In addition, the occlusion of blood vessels also leads to poor functioning of the heart.
For example, when a person has a disease like flashing arrhythmia. Also, the blood viscosity leads to a stroke, which, in turn, is associated with the acceptance of medicated drugs, and with congenital disorders of natural coagulation of blood.
If you talk about the most common causes of hemorrhagic stroke, one of the following can be distinguished:
- The ruptures of the enlarged arteries, or otherwise called aneurysm, congenital vascular pathology;
- Artery rupture as a result of high blood pressure.
When cells are killed in a particular area of the brain, there are very serious violations or complete disabling of the functions that are performed by this part of the brain.
Since brain stroke occurs in most cases only in one part of the brain, the disruption of work and functioning usually occurs on the opposite side of the body. This is due to the fact that all nerve paths from the brain and the whole body cross.
For example, if the left half of the brain is affected, then you should expect that the sensitivity decrease will be on the right side of the body. In addition, if you talk about a stroke on the left side, it should be remembered that the left half is responsible for mental and speech functions, so a person can have a gross speech impairment and a deterioration in understanding what others say.
The risk of stroke increases with the following factors:
- Male Representative;
- Age of a person over 50 years old;
- Presence of hypertension in a person;
- Increased obesity;
- The presence of uncontrolled high sugar in a person, that is, diabetes mellitus;
- Humorous habits such as smoking and alcoholism;
- Similar cases to relatives, especially relatives;
- Oral contraceptives.
The main symptoms of an
stroke It is necessary to emphasize to yourself that strokes are manifested not only in the form of paralysis, because the symptoms of the disease can be very different. It is therefore extremely important to identify the main features, as soon as possible and to contact a specialist in time to avoid the consequences.
Since school time, we have been taught what departments of the brain are responsible for the functions:
- The cerebral cortex is responsible for speech, thinking, feelings and muscular movements;
- The subcortical part controls the functioning of the heart, pressure, respiration and others;
- The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating movements.
Therefore, depending on the damaged site, certain functions are violated, but in most cases the stroke falls on the bark. The main symptoms are:
- Limb movement disturbances;
- Violation of perception, that is, there should be a very low response to pain, temperature changes, and more;
- Language disturbances, that is, the language becomes obscure, sluggish and fuzzy;
- Disturbed balance, that is, a person flutters or falls when trying to stand;
- Violation of consciousness: constant feeling of drowsiness or frequent loss of consciousness.
There are also less indicative symptoms that can occur not only with a stroke:
- Headache, which can also be with migraines;
- A dizziness, which can be manifested in the pain of the ears;
- Muscle cramps are a symptom of not only a stroke, but also a trial.
It should also be noted one very important medical fact - if dizziness is accompanied by vomiting and nausea, and no other symptoms, then this is a very small percentage of stroke.
Most likely, dizziness with vomiting and nausea is a sign of pathology in the vestibular apparatus, and this is not life-threatening. But, if there are other symptoms, you should immediately apply for help.
If you suddenly come across a person who has been severely affected by a stroke, you must first put it in the most comfortable position, unfasten all his clothes and immediately report the event to ambulance.
After this, it should be given to him to chew one pill of aspirin and measure his arterial pressure. But in no case should you leave the sick person, especially if he is unconscious, since, when a person is unconscious, his muscular strength is greatly weakened.
This often causes breathlessness - the tongue covers the respiratory throat. A person who is unconsciously needs to be put on the side so that saliva created in the oral cavity flows out.
In six out of eight cases, the symptoms of a stroke are very vague and pass through the course of the day. This condition is officially called a transient ischemic attack, that is, a transient violation of the brain's circulation.
Such long strokes are warning. This means that after it, a slight stroke, a large, serious and severe stroke will soon be followed.
The particular importance of a stroke can be realized by referring to statistical observational data. According to statistics, death from a stroke of an acute period is about 35 percent, but by the end of the year this figure is rising to 50 percent. This means that every pair patient dies.
Approximately 80 percent of people who have suffered strokes, as a result, become disabled. And those who have suffered from this disease need urgent prophylaxis, because there is a high risk of a second stroke. Incidentally, not only the elderly can suffer from this disease - recently there have been cases of illness in people who have not reached the age of 45 years.
But let these statistics, as well as the stroke symptoms, do not scare you. The main thing is not to panic. It is necessary to correctly and realistically evaluate the possibilities and to think: what can change in life, in order to avoid an attack? For example, you can not overeat, stop smoking and move more. From time to time control the pressure, cholesterol and sugar.
In order to determine with a 100% confidence that a stroke is in a person, it is imperative to take into account the presence of any accompanying harmful diseases in the patient. In addition, an important argumentative consultation of the neurologist is important. There are some studies that must necessarily be conducted:
- General Urine Test;
- Blood tests, biochemical and general. Important characteristics such as cholesterol and fats;
- Detailed blood coagulation study, ie coagulogram;
- Ultrasound doppler of the neck and head vessels;
- Computer tomography or magnetic resonance tomography;
- Consultation of ophthalmologist and therapist.
The effects of stroke are treated only by stationary method, but the first few days of the patient are kept in the intensive care unit, as in the first days after the stroke, there is a high probability that the person will sharply deteriorate their well-being.
It is precisely these days that a person who has suffered a stroke prescribes a range of activities, among which the main ones are:
- Within 5-6 hours after a man has suffered a stroke and after having been found by means of computer tomography, ischemicthe patient can be provided with professional medical assistance with the use of specialized equipment. Medical help is that with the help of the equipment it is possible to carry out resorption of blood clots;
- Controlling all the functions of the body that are necessary for a healthy livelihood;
- Medicinal reduction of blood viscosity. The reduction of viscosity is achieved through aspirin, reopolyglucin and pentoxifylline;
- Protects all brain cells from the dangers of stroke;
- Accelerates the processes of brain cell renewal with the help of increased doses of cortexin, nootropic or perbrolysin.
After these and other types of procedures and appropriate treatment have been made, a person who has suffered a stroke is prescribed special medications that reduce the likelihood of his recurrence.
In the process of treatment, a person is under constant supervision of specialists, where all necessary measures are taken to support blood pressure.
Restoration Period after Stroke
One of the most important and essential aspects of stroke treatment is neuro-rehabilitation, and this aspect should be remembered both for the patient and his relatives.
Neuro-rehabilitation is a whole range of professional therapeutic measures that are carried out with active work and the help of specialists and in specially designated places, that is, sanatoria and dispensaries.
A person with a stroke is also trained by the following qualified specialists:
- Specialists in exercise therapy who have to deal with patients from the 2nd day. Specialists in this field are engaged in attempts to lift the patient's legs;
- Speech therapist who deals with patient restoration;
- neuropsychologist conducts a general assessment of the state of memory and assessment of patient's intelligence;
- Physiotherapist involved in stimulating the nervous system;
- A psychotherapist, which eliminates sadness, depression, and the outrage of a person from the track.
When prescribing neuro-rehabilitation on time, there is a high probability that sooner or later lost due to a stroke, the functions will be restored.