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What does a human's digestive tract look like?

The interest in the anatomy and physiology of the own body is in many people. Not only doctors should know the structure of the gastrointestinal tract and other human systems. Modern life dictates the need to have certain knowledge for everyone to be able to correctly explain their complaints,

to orient themselves in the symptoms, to provide first aid to the needy in her person. Today there is a sufficient number of sources for studying the human body with visual pictures, photos and videos, in particular, the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

Contents

  • 1 How everything is arranged
  • 2 What is
  • 3 How does

work Everything is arranged

There is nothing unnecessary and unnecessary for a person, all parts of the body, organs and systems have mutual anatomical or functional relationships. Violation of the activity of one department entails failures in the work of others. This is particularly evident on the example of the functioning of the digestive tract.

The human digestive tract is a single system consisting of hollow digestive tubes located vertically behind each other and separated by special valves( muscle sphincter).The

Gecko originates from the oral cavity and ends with a passage opening, throughout it has several bends and extensions and a similar structure of the intestinal wall. What does a human There are four main functional layers that are distinguished:

  • mucous membrane is an internal lining of the hollow organs in which the villi are located( through which the transport of nutrients in the small intestine is carried out), the glands producing the digestive juices( in the stomach), the lymphoid tissue, creates immune cells(in the large intestine);The
  • submucosal layer consists of a loose connective tissue cell, in which there is a vascular-nerve bundle; here are the clusters of cells that produce the mucous secretion;
  • is a well-developed layer of muscle fibers necessary for pushing food;
  • serous coating - external protection from damage( peritoneum).

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Where does

What does a human exist? In the human gastrointestinal tract, all departments are arranged one by one in order of priority to fulfill their task of providing the body with the energy required for life and material for the renewal of the cellular composition. One by one top down:

  • The cavity of the mouth, together with the teeth, tongue and ducts of the salivary glands, forms the initial section of the digestive tract. Here there is a mechanical treatment of food, mixing with saliva, making a lump for further swallowing and begins the process of digestion of carbohydrates under the action of amylase).
  • The pharynx is a transitional portion between the oral cavity and the esophagus, as well as the borderline between the digestive and respiratory tubes. Overgrowth when swallowing drops and closes the entrance to the trachea, providing unobstructed passage of food through the esophagus without throwing it in the airways.
  • The esophagus is an organ with a developed muscular layer, it has several physiologically determined constrictions, moisturizes and pushes food down to the stomach. Separated from the last lower esophageal sphincter, which does not allow sour stomach contents back into the esophagus. The
  • Stomach is a bottle-shaped reservoir for 2 to 3 hours, it moisturizes the food chest and brings it to the optimum temperature, cleaves the proteins to the amino acids, special cells produce gastric juice containing hydrochloric acid and pepsin, necessary for further etching.
  • The small intestine is the longest section of the human gastrointestinal tract. Has three functional education - the duodenum( here is the splitting of proteins, carbohydrates and fats), the intestine( active absorption through the fibers of nutrient molecules), the colon( ends with hydrolysis splitting and transporting molecules).
  • Thick gut - is divided into three separate parts. The cecum with appendix( appendix) passes into the dorsal part( first ascending, then transverse, descending, sigmoid), the latter is the rectum. In this terminal department of the gastrointestinal tract there is the last suction of the remaining fluid and electrolytes, forming fecal masses in the final form. They accumulate in the ampulum of the rectum, which are held up by the time by the anal sphincter, and then pushed out through the anus.
  • The gastrointestinal tract of a person from an anatomical-physiological point of view is more correctly called the digestive system. In addition to the main tube of the gastrointestinal tract in the process of food processing, there are additional components involved - salivary glands, liver, zhelcheoobrazuyuschaya and bile duct system, pancreas.

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    What does a human All links of the human gastrointestinal tract fulfill their unique tasks in interaction with each other. This system is controlled by the activity of the cerebral cortex, regulated by the endocrine and immune systems. In general, life support for the human GTP carries out several important functions: the

    • motor - is a mechanical chewing and mixing of the adopted food, the promotion of food from the throat to the below departments and the removal of the undisturbed part out;
    • secretory activity - the selection of special digestive liquids or secretions( saliva, gastric and pancreatic juice, bile) containing acids and enzymes for the chemical splitting of food into separate ingredients;
    • suction function - providing efficient transport of mineral ions, vitamin molecules, amino acids, monosaccharides, and other food components from the lumen of the digestive tract through the nasal epithelium in the bloodstream and lymph flow;
    • excretory activity - excretion outside of the feces of toxic substances, metabolites of drugs and chemical compounds coming from the bloodstream into the intestinal lumen.

    The gastrointestinal tract of a person carries out its activity in interaction with other organs and systems in a single process of providing vital functions of a living organism.

    Studying your own body, structure and functions of its departments will help everyone to deal with emerging situations and problems, understand the severity of this or that symptom and the need to consult a doctor.