Actinomycosis - forms of the disease, diagnostics, treatment, photos
- 23 Jul 02:00
- Disease Of The Skin
Actinomycosis - a disease of an infectious nature, it is caused by bacteria actinomycetes, the second name of these microorganisms - radiant mushrooms. Actinomycosis can affect the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes internal organs. The course of the disease is chronic.
- 1 cause of disease
- 2 Classification forms of the disease
- 2.1 skin form
- 2.2 maxillofacial form
- 2.3 Thoracic form
- 2.4 Abdominal form
- 2.5 Urogenital form
- 2.6 Articular form
- 2.7 Madurskaya foot
- 3 Diagnostic Techniques
- 4 Treatment
- 4.1 Treatment by folk methods
- 5 Forecast and prevention of
- 6 Photo
Causes of the development of the disease
Actinomycosis is a non-specific, caused by opportunistic pathogens, a chronic disease. In nature, actinomycetes are widespread, they are settled, as a rule, in cereal plants. Radiant mushroom can be found on wheat, barley, rye and other cereals. Large amounts of actinomycetes may be encountered as spores in dry straw and hay.
In the body, radiant mushrooms fall in inhalation of spores or in the use of raw ears. In the blood of actinomycetes penetrate through damage to the mucous membranes of the mouth or digestive tract, or due to skin damage.
Actinomycosis, except for humans and farm animals. However, infection from a sick animal or a sick person does not occur.
The main predisposing cause of actinomycosis is to reduce the natural resistance that can be caused by concomitant diseases( eg, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis).
To actinomycosis, trauma and oral cavity diseases are attracted; much less often, the causes of infection develop ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract, injuries to the intestine, surgical operations.
Classification of the forms of the disease
Actinomycosis is taken to form, depending on which part of the body is localized pathological process. Distinguish the following forms of the disease:
- jaw-facial and cervical;
- Urogenital actinomycosis;
- Actinomycosis of the central nervous system;
- Actinomycosis of bones and joints.
- Actinomycosis stop - another name of this disease is the Madur foot.
Depending on the nature of the rash, 4 types of actinomycosis are distinguished:
The incubation period has not been established for actinomycosis until now. The disease is characterized by a long flow, it can last for dozens of years. In the initial period of actinomycosis, patients feel normal, however, when involved in the process of internal organs, the state dramatically worsens, patients develop cachexia( pathological depletion).
A skin type of actinomycosis, most often, affects the sacral or submandibular area, buttocks. The disease begins with the formation of seals in the subcutaneous tissue. The skin over the infiltrates acquires a purple or cyanotic shade, the seals themselves have a spherical shape. Rash is painless.
At the beginning of the disease, infiltration has a dense structure, as it develops, they soften, and then unfold with the formation of a poorly healing fistula. Purulent is secreted from the fistula, sometimes it is possible to notice the grains of yellowish color, the dusks of a radiant fungus look like that.
The jaw-facial form of
This type of actinomycosis occurs more often than others. The disease can occur with skin lesions, subcutaneous or intramuscular fibers. The process can spread to the face and neck, capturing the facial hole, tongue, lips, and throat. Most patients develop a characteristic infiltrate in the area of chewing muscles.
In this form of actinomycosis, patients at the onset of the disease experience symptoms of colds, including dry cough. After a while, the cough becomes wet, there is a sputum with a taste of the metal. As the antinomyocytic infiltration increases, the process captures the thoracic wall. On the skin of the chest are formed fistulas that come from the bronchi. Fistulaes can appear not only on the chest, but also in other parts of the trunk.
Abdominal form of
Symptoms of abdominal actinomycosis are often confused with manifestations of acute surgical pathologies - appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, and others.
The pathological process extends to all organs of the digestive tract, often involving the kidneys and even the spine. When spreading the process to the anterior abdominal wall, fistulas that come from the intestine are formed on it. If actinomycosis affects the rectum, then patients have a characteristic pattern of paroproctitis.
This is a rare form of actinomycosis. The disease often develops secondary, as a complication in the spread of infection from the abdominal cavity.
Bone and joint damage with actinomycosis is usually observed in the spread of infection that struck other organs. Actinomycosis of bones proceeds with a characteristic pattern of osteomyelitis, joint damage, as a rule, is not accompanied by significant destruction of tissues. When infiltration develops to the surface of the skin, fistulas are formed on it.
Actinomycosis of the foot begins with the appearance of dense petiole-sized nodules on the soles. As the disease progresses, their number gradually increases, the skin over the nodes becomes red. The shape of the foot changes, nodes are opened with the formation of fistulas. In the process, muscles, tendons, bones of the foot can be damaged.
Early diagnosis of the disease is necessary for the successful treatment of actinomycosis. Conducting an analysis of swab smears or study of sputum on the presence of actinomycetes is not informative, since these microorganisms in the normal range can be in the microflora and healthy person. For this reason, it is necessary to take the secretion from the fist or to puncture infiltrates through the skin for analysis. If during the microscopic examination it is possible to find dusts of a radiological fungus, then a preliminary diagnosis can be made. In the future, the patient is sent for examination, aimed at determining the type of radiological fungus. For this purpose, immunofluorescence reactions are carried out.
However, in many patients with actinomycosis, dusts can not be detected by microscopic examination. In this case, it is necessary to carry out the sowing of the material obtained during the puncture, on the Sabur environment. Within two days it will be possible to detect, in microscopy, the characteristic colonies of the radiant fungus. However, a full study of sowing on actinomycosis takes almost three weeks. It is necessary to track the growth of the associated microflora, as well as to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibacterial drugs.
Treatment of actinomycosis is usually done in a hospital. Patients with actinomycosis are prescribed intramuscular and subcutaneous injections of actinolizate and antibiotics. The selection of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of the disease is carried out on the basis of the bacterial growth. It is necessary to suppress the reproduction of the concomitant microflora and prevent secondary infection.
Since actinomycosis is a chronic infection, general and decontamination therapy is additionally selected for the treatment of the disease.
In actinomycosis, physiotherapeutic treatment is shown, with the disease effectively acting in the UFO lesions, carrying out electrophoresis procedures with iodine and actinolysate.
Severe actinomycosis may require surgical treatment, which involves the autopsy and drainage of abscesses, fistula treatment, drainage of the pleural or abdominal cavity.
Treatment of folk methods
It should be understood that when treating actinomycosis, folk remedies can only be used as auxiliary therapy, that is, as an add-on to the treatment with antibacterial drugs.
In order to increase the immunity and enhance the effect of treatment of actinomycosis, it is worth taking 80 drops of Eleutherococcus or levcele tincture daily.
For external use with actinomycosis it is recommended to make garlic tincture. For this it is recommended to mix in equal parts crushed garlic and medical alcohol. Infuse the mixture for 3 days, then strain the infusion and store in the refrigerator.
In order to receive the inside with actinomycosis, it is recommended to prepare a decoction from the collection of the following herbs: the leaves of eucalyptus and baboon, the horsetail and melissa grass, birch buds. Each ingredient needs to be taken at 50 grams. Into the mixture add 100 grams of herbs to the St. John's wort and the leaves of the watch. Brew daily 2 spoons of the mixture in 500 ml of water.
Forecast and prevention of
For early diagnosis of the disease and adequately selected therapy, the prognosis for actinomycosis is favorable. In case of severe illness with defeat of internal organs and in the absence of specific treatment, severe cachexia and fatal outcome are possible.
Specific prevention of actinomycosis infection does not exist. Non-specific prophylactic measures include the timely rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection, hygiene, treatment of inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory organs, and diseases of the oral cavity.