Infectious erythema - clinical picture of the disease, treatment, photo
- 18 Jul 08:15
- Disease Of The Skin
Infectious erythema is sometimes referred to as "fifth disease", as it can be recognized as a "supplement" to well-known TORCH infections - herpes simplex, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection and toxoplasmosis.
Infectious erythema is a disease caused by theB19 paravirus. It affects people of all ages, but most often 4-11 year old children are ill. In adults, this form of erythema is observed relatively rarely, but may occur more difficult, especially in women over the age of 30-35 years.
A very dangerous viral variety of erythema during pregnancy, infection can lead to fetal death and miscarriage. Particularly dangerous for the fetus is the infection of a pregnant woman in the period from 10 to 26 weeks of gestation.
- 1 Causes of
- 2 Diseases
- Articular Syndrome 2.2 Infection in Pregnancy
- 2.3 Possible Complications of
- Diagnostic Methods 4 Treatment of Official Medical Methods
- 5 Treatment in Pregnancy
- 6 Treatment of Traditional Medicine Methods
- 7 Preventionand the prediction of
The causes of the disease
The causes of the development of infectious erythema are not sufficiently understood, although it is well known that the disease is caused by a paravirus B19( B19V) and as a consequence of this beliefU.S. may also appear viral exanthema.
Infection is transmitted mainly by airborne infections, however, its contagious( susceptible to infection) is low. There are other ways of transmitting the infection, the virus can enter the body when transfusion of blood from an infected person, and infection of the fetus occurs through the placenta.
Parovirus B19, which causes the development of infectious erythema, is a single-spiral, DNA-containing virus that does not have a shell, its diameter is 18-24 nm.
Infectious erythema, as a rule, is manifested by sporadic outbreaks in children's institutions or in families. After a transmitted disease in humans, a stable life immunity is formed.
It should be said that during serological studies during outbreaks of the viral form of erythema, it is shown that approximately 80% of the examined patients tolerate the disease in a subclinical( asymptomatic) form.
Clinical picture of the disease
The incubation period of this variant of erythema lasts about two weeks. Symptoms and manifestations of infectious form of erythema strongly depend on subjective factors:
- Age of the patient;
- Presence of concomitant diseases;
- Presence of pathology in the system of hematopoiesis and blood circulation, etc.
The very first symptoms of infectious erythema reminiscent of signs of flu. The patient is characterized by fever, itching in the nose, runny nose, pruritus and sore throat, chills, headache, general weakness, lack of appetite. Sometimes these manifestations are so insignificant that the patient does not pay special attention to them.
A few days after the onset of the disease, a rash appears on the body. Although this symptom may be absent, especially the absence of rash is observed in adult patients.
As a rule, rash with infectious erythema appears on the body in a certain scenario.
Everything begins with the eruption phase of the erythema when the rash appears on the face. Typically, the cheeks are first reddened, covered with roseolous or rosular-papular elements as with children's roseol. The affected skin acquires a bright red color and apparently sick infectious form of erythema at this stage of the disease looks as if it was hit by the cheeks. The affected skin is swollen, the individual rash elements are initially large enough( diameter 1 centimeter or more).Elements of rash with infectious form of erythema grow rapidly and merge into continuous plaques that symmetrically lie on the cheeks. The skin of the forehead and chin with this disease are extremely rare. The rash is held for 4-5 days, after which they are solved spontaneously.
The mesh phase of infectious erythema occurs approximately 2-3 days after the onset of a face rash. Sometimes both phases of erythema occur simultaneously. During this phase, the skin of the extremities, buttocks and trunk appear eruptions resembling a grid or quirky lace. Subjective sensations( pain, itching) do not occur with erythema. The rash disappears after 6-14 days after appearance.
In the future, when infectious erythema occurs, a relapse phase occurs, which can take 2-3 weeks. For this phase, the appearance of erythema of repeated eruptions is not the same areas of the skin. The emergence of secondary rash can be accompanied by stress, temperature drop, overheating or overcooling.
Rash with infectious form of erythema is allowed without scratches or pigmentation or keloid scars. Sometimes patients have lymphopenia or lymphocytosis in a weak degree.
The next stage of infectious erythema is characterized by the development of symmetrical polyarthritis of moderately severe course. Symptoms at this stage of the disease are similar to the manifestations of rheumatoid polyarthritis.
Joint damage with erythema begins to occur with the onset of production in the body of IgG and immune complexes, which also cause damage to the tissues of the joints. Polyarthritis can last from 2-4 weeks to 3-4 years, in some cases, joints are migratory.
In infectious erythema in children, joint arthritis is most often manifested by acute arthritis with a short duration, in some cases, the joint syndrome is manifested solely by arthralgia( the appearance of joint pains without tissue damage).In children, in about 80% of cases only knee joints are affected.
The duration of this phase of infectious erythema is 3-4 months, sometimes it can last for a year. Such a long course of articular syndrome often leads to an incorrect diagnosis - juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
To exclude errors it is necessary to assign laboratory studies. With infectious erythema, laboratory values remain within normal limits.
Pregnancy As already noted, a particularly dangerous infection with B19 in the pregnancy. Infectious erythema in pregnant women leads to infected fetus and develops severe anemia, heart failure and generalized edema, which can lead to fetal death. Approximately 10% of cases of infection with paravirus B19 leads to involuntary abortion.
Possible complications of
Infectious erythema may provoke complications, especially in children.
This type of erythema may cause the termination of erythrocyte synthesis. If the man was originally healthy, then such a complication, in most cases, is imperceptible. However, if before the infection there were problems with the blood system( for example, thalassemia, serotonucleic anemia), then stopping the synthesis of red blood cells can lead to aplastic crisis of 7-10 days.
It is difficult to tolerate the infectious type of erythema in patients with aplastic anemia. In this case, patients have an accelerated heartbeat, severe fever and other, extremely unpleasant symptoms.
Infectious erythema is also dangerous for people with immunodeficiency. In such patients, the disease often turns into a chronic form, which eventually leads to the development of severe pathologies of the system of hematopoiesis and resistant anemia.
Clinical and laboratory diagnostics of infectious form of erythema is a rather complicated problem, as the symptoms of the disease are similar to manifestations of many other diseases.
In an external examination, infectious erythema should be suspected of a typical, "laced" form of rash.
For the correct diagnosis, a number of tests are required, in particular:
- A serological test to detect antibodies to the virus.
- Conduct a general analysis to detect levels of erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes in the blood.
A general blood test should be performed during treatment so that the effectiveness of the therapy can be assessed.
Needed differential diagnosis with such diseases as:
- Scarlet fever;
- Drug toxidemia and medical rash;
- Exudative erythema.
When the fields appear in the joints, it is necessary to distinguish the infectious form of erythema from:
- of rheumatoid arthritis and the appearance of rheumatoid nodules with it;
Treatment of official medical methods
In infectious erythema in children and adolescents, hospitalization of patients is usually not required. The principle of treatment of this disease is similar to the scheme adopted for the treatment of any other viral infections.
Treatment during pregnancy
Since infectious erythema presents a certain risk to the fetus, pregnant women are placed at the time of treatment in a hospital. Therapy is carried out with constant monitoring of laboratory blood parameters and regular ultrasound examination of the fetal condition.
Hospital for the treatment of infectious erythema is indicated in patients with immunodeficiency and diseases of the system of hematopoiesis.
Treatment of folk medicine methods
As an adjunct to the treatment chosen by the doctor for the treatment of infectious erythema, phytotherapy can be used.
In this form of erythema it is useful to use a tincture cooked from pink rhodiola, Chinese lemongrass or ginseng. You need to take any of the named plants and grind into powder, if the raw material is dry, or in the rubbish, if the grass is fresh. Prepared raw materials are filled with high quality vodka, 1 part of the grass is needed to take 10 parts of vodka. Infuse in a dark place for two weeks. Take, pre-straining, 20 drops three times daily before a meal.
For the treatment of infectious erythema, it is possible to prepare an infusion from the following medicinal plants: birch leaves of willow bark, black elderberry flowers. All components are mixed in equal parts. Then take a glass of boiling water to take one spoon of cooked dry and stew at low boiling point( preferably in a water bath) for five minutes. Then turn off the heating, cover the dishes with a lid and stand it until fully cooled. Dissolve the liquid, divide it into three servings. Accept during the day before meal.
Under a similar scheme you can prepare infusion of grass spores, golden rods and turnips. This infusion helps to cope with infectious erythema more quickly.
Prevention and prognosis
The prognosis for infectious erythema is favorable. From the moment of appearance of influenza-like symptoms, the patient is subject to isolation, but after the occurrence of the rash does not pose a danger to others. Therefore, in normal state of health under infectious erythema it is possible to conduct a habitual way of life.
Unfortunately, it is possible to get infected with erythema from the carrier of the virus or a patient whose disease proceeds asymptomatic. It is impossible to recognize such people, therefore there are no effective preventive measures. However, reduce the risk of getting an infection. For this it is recommended:
The active development of a vaccine aimed at protecting the body from the papillary virus B19 is underway. So, it is possible that doctors will soon be offered a vaccination against infectious erythema.