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Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

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SA 19 9 blood test - what does it mean and how to prepare for it? SA 19 9 is a carbohydrate oncomarker, a glycoprotein that determines the presence of a pancreatic cancer in humans. Consider

the main nuances of this analysis, the value of such a marker in identifying pathologies in the body.

Contents

  • 1 What is SA-19-9?
  • 2 Why do you need an examination?
  • 3
  • Marker Concentration Changes 4 Other Indicators
  • 5 Tumor Marker for Colon Cancer and Liver Diseases
  • 6 How do tests?
  • 7 Additional researches

1 What is SA-19-9?

This is a special type of high molecular weight glycoprotein. It is a modified form of the antigen of Levis. Normally, in healthy cells of the pancreas, stomach, gall bladder, in the pulmonary tissue. Glycoprotein SA 19 9 is produced by cancerous tumor cells of the pancreas and much less frequently in the stomach.

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Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

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Study of the concentration of this substance is extremely important in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Thus, there is a marked increase in marker concentration in almost half of patients with suspected carcinoma. The level of CA 19 9 may vary depending on the stage of the cancer.

If CA 19 9 increases after surgery for pancreatic cancer, this may indicate a relapse or the appearance of metastasis. And if the body grows benign tumor, then increasing the number of markers is much less.

Antigen is not highly specific. Not recommended for screening.

Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

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2 Why do you need an examination?

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Although the oncomarker is an indication of the presence of pancreatic carcinoma in the body, it does not indicate the presence of the disease at an early stage. So it is advisable to conduct such a study to control the effectiveness of anticancer treatment.

Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

It is worth remembering that the marker SA 19 9 is excreted primarily from the body with bile. So if a person is disturbed by secretion and outflow of bile, it immediately affects its content in the blood.

To determine if a person has a dangerous disease, an analysis on this marker is required. You do not need to give up such a survey.

Monitoring the amount of pancreas should be done according to the following indications:

  • preclinical examination;
  • to determine the nature of the course of the disease of the pancreas and other organs of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • patient tracking to exclude possible relapse of stomach cancer;
  • tumor of the large intestine;
  • hepatitis;
  • stomach formation in the gallbladder;
  • liver cirrhosis;
  • cystic fibrosis;
  • inflammatory pathology of the gastrointestinal tract.

Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

3 Change in

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If the patient shows a concentration of CA 19 9 to 500 OD per milliliter, then with 50% probability, he can be diagnosed with pathologies not associated with the malignant process:

  • cholecystitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • hepatitis( acute or chronic toxic,
  • stomach in the gallbladder)

If the patient has such a marker of more than 500 units per ml of blood, then it may have the following pathologies:

  • cancers of female genital organs - uterus, ovary - 70%cases;
  • breast cancer( 70 percent of cases);
  • liver cancer, sigmoid colon, stomach, gall bladder - in 90% of cases;
  • pancreatic cancer - always

Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

Note that normal in pancreatic, gall bladder, liver cells,in the blood of the lungs is an acceptable number of tokagOncomarker - 10 to 37 units per ml of blood. Tomancers of high levels of pancreas always indicate malignant pathology

4 Other indicators of

The low values ​​of such an antigen( its reference values ​​- from 0 to 34 units per ml) indicate thatA person is healthy and has a low risk of developing a tumor. However, if the patient has a normal marker concentration, this does not mean that he does not have a malignant process. It happens when it has already begun, and the marker level has not yet managed to rise.

In any case, a person must remember that the higher the amount of antigen Sa 19 9, the lower the stage of cancer. The highest numbers of such markers occur in the case of metastasis.

You should also pay attention to the following remarks:

  • Considered oncomarker is essential for determining early metastasis.
  • Approximately every tenth, there is no gene capable of encoding the antigen of Ca 19 9. Thus, they can not detect a marker. And even if there is a pronounced oncology process, an analysis on such a marker will show that everything is in order. That is why after such a blood study the doctor assigns additional tests that confirm or rule out the presence of a malignant pancreatic process.
  • Some representatives of the Caucasian nationalities do not even produce such a marker even in the presence of a malignant process.

    Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

    The accuracy of the analysis in terms of diagnosis is significantly increased with the simultaneous conducting of analyzes on REA, CA 242, CA 72-4 and on the overall indicator of bilirubin.

    5 Oncomarker for colon cancer and liver diseases

    Test application:

    • is indicated for differential diagnosis of carcinoma( when it is necessary, for example, to distinguish colon cancer from other forms of cancer);
    • helps track the body's response to therapy;
    • helps to detect relapses and metastases in the large intestine.

    At present, there is not enough clinical data to allow the use of this oncomarker to determine the presence of a cancerous colon cancer patient. In all these cases, the test CA 19 9 is shown as an additional diagnostic measure.

    Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

    This analysis is often used for differential diagnosis of liver and biliary tract diseases. Allows differentiation of cancerous formations and metastases in the pancreas with similar formations in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, etc.

    The high diagnostic value of this test is explained, first of all, by the fact that this oncomarker is excreted in large quantities with bile. And if the body violates the conditions for outflow of bile, then in the blood immediately increases significantly marker indicators.

    To enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the SA19 9 marker, 9 patients are additionally assigned a biochemical assay for gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Determination of their activity allows us to judge the presence of a patient's severe liver disease, including malignant.

    Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

    6 How do you test?

    Blood from the vein is required for this test. It is taken from the patient in the usual way. The medical staff monitors the implementation of all precautionary measures for this test. Patient before taking blood should not feel nervous overload, engage in heavy physical work, burn, etc.

    Preparation for taking blood from the vein is standard. A few hours before the procedure, you must refuse to eat. In addition, blood sampling is carried out on condition that the medication is discontinued. If this is not possible, then the patient must be alerted to the doctor.

    Breast Cancer Marker: What Does CA-19-9 Mean?

    A day before taking blood from the vein, the patient must prepare and follow a special diet. It is necessary to restrict, and even better, to exclude from the diet fried, greasy, smoked. Naturally, it is necessary to completely remove in any form alcohol.

    7 Additional studies

    Analysis of the SA19 9 marker, as well as other cancer markers, does not provide 100% accuracy. Therefore, in order to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis, additional examinations are necessary: ​​

  • Biochemical blood test. In this regard, an analysis of blood bilirubin is especially important. When carcinoma of the pancreas, its contents in the blood rises sharply.
  • Palpation of the pancreas, monitoring of the skin can also be an additional diagnostic moment. Some patients may have jaundice. Accumulation of the fluid in the abdominal cavity( ascites) is also one of the signs of cancer.
  • Computer scan( X-rays are used to determine the body's condition).In this case, the images are processed by the computer a detailed and qualitative image of the body, which allows you to see malignant neoplasms.
  • MRI gives a clear idea of ​​the presence of malignant processes in the pancreas in humans.
  • A ultrasound examination shows the doctor a qualitative image of the abdominal cavity.
  • Cholangiography can detect the condition of the bile ducts.
  • Holangiopancreotography is done with an endoscope.
  • A pancreatic biopsy( for this a fragment of the body tissue is taken).The most widespread thin-blooded biopsy has given accurate results.
  • Thus, the analysis of CA 19 9 is an accurate diagnostic measure that allows determining the degree of progression of malignant pancreatic disease.

    When conducting additional diagnostic measures, the doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and appoint the necessary treatment in each particular case.