Blastomycosis North American - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Photo
- 14 Jul 16:45
- Disease Of The Skin
North American blastomycosis is a chronic disease characterized by the development of granulomatous-abscessing process. Affected skin, lung and genitourinary system. The disease is found mainly onin the North American continent, but sporadic cases of blastomycosis were observed in European countries. Since in the process of studying the disease examined, mostly Chicago residents, North American blastomycosis is often referred to as Chicago disease.
- 1 Causes of development of
- 2 Clinical picture
- 2.1 Skin manifestations
- 2.2 Visceral lesions
- 2.3 Developmental stages
- 3 Methods of diagnosis
- 4 Treatment of
- 4.1 Treatment of folk remedies
- 5 Forecast and prevention of
- 6 Photo
Causes of development of
North American blastomycosis is a disease of fungal nature. The causative agent is the dimorphic fungus Blastomices dermatitidis, which can occur in tissue or culture form.
Multiply the fungus by budding, giving a single kidney. The fungus is quite large, in the study of affected tissues, the fungus looks like oval cells in the size of 10-20 microns.
The shape of the fungus depends on the external conditions. So, when growing a culture in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 37 degrees, the fungus grows in a yeast form. Young colonies of the fungus are yeast-shaped sour cream, not related to the nutrient medium. Over time, the colonies become similar to Candida fungi cultures that cause candidiasis.
When growing crops at room temperature, fungi grow in a mycelial form. Such colonies of the fungus have a smooth surface, first covered with white, and later yellow-brown gun.
Due to the resistance to external influences of the fungus, Blastomices dermatitidis is similar to the Candida species, the latter being the causative agent of very often such diseases as the milk throat. At boiling, the fungus dies for 5 minutes, when heated to a temperature of 60 degrees - for 3 hours. When treated with antiseptic solutions( formalin, chloramine, phenol, etc.) fungi die practically immediately.
A common blastomycosis agent on the North American continent, especially a large number of patients found in the Mississippi River Valley. Most often, blastomycosis is diagnosed in people who are busy with farming. Men suffer from blastomycosis an order of magnitude more often than women. Among the sick are more young people aged 20-40 years.
The mechanism of transmission of blastomycosis is not entirely clear. Most often the pathogen penetrates the body in the process of inhalation of dust, which contains spores of fungi or through the skin. Blastomycosis also affects animals, however, direct transmission of disease from animal to human is not observed.
Blastomycosis is a North American, a type of disease characterized by the appearance on the skin of the formations of the verrucous( wart) type, for example, of the cartilage of the cartilage, and the defeat of some internal organs. Most often, in patients with blastomycosis there is a lesion of the lungs and urogenital system.
The incubation period for blastomycosis can vary in duration from week to month. Infiltrated into an organism the fungus multiplies rapidly and in the short term causes the development of the generalized process. The same process is also observed in such widespread diseases as nodule of Hyde's hive, infectious erythema, numular eczema, etc.
Skin manifestations of
Blastomycosis of North American appears with the formation of cartilage lesions on the skin. Primary cells of the lesion with blastomycosis are limited in nature, secondary skin lesions appear simultaneously with the development of lung or other organs.
Primary skin manifestations of blastomycosis are observed in open areas - the skin of the legs, forearms or faces. The "Chicago disease" begins with the formation of a small red papule with an pointed tip. Papula is painless, but it can cause itching. Progresses blastomycosis fairly quickly. On the spot papules in a few days a pustule is formed, the lesion focal point increases in diameter up to 5 cm. Bubbles sometimes appear on its surface.
Skin manifestations of North American blastomycosis are similar to those of lupus erythematosus or cancer of the skin( melanoma, basal, cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, etc.).When pushed to the center with blastomycosis, small droplets of the exudate can be isolated. Often, the primary cell is surrounded by secondary rash, which are located in the form of a halo.
As the blastomycosis develops, in the center of the hearth, scars are formed, and secondary hemorrhoids are located around it.
In the North American blastomycosis, internal organs may also be involved in the process. First and foremost, the lungs suffer. The main symptoms of blastomycosis at this stage are:
- Rise of temperature;
- General weakness;
- Development of diffuse bronchitis;
- Division of mucosal purulent sputum.
When conducting an X-ray examination of lungs in patients with blastomycosis, hearths appear that look like tuberculosis.
Approximately 20-30% of patients with blastomycosis in North America have lesions of the urogenital system. Men have lesions of the prostate, testicles, spermatic cords. Sometimes the kidneys are involved in the process.
For women with blastomycosis, adhesions are formed that connect the internal organs of the reproductive system with the bladder, intestinal loops. The density and size of adhesions depend on the duration of blastomycosis.
When involved in the process of the uterus, its surface is compacted, on it fibrous nodes are formed. Blastomycosis endometritis often develops, and the fallopian tubes thicken and thicken. Patients notice the appearance of abundant purulent discharge from the genital tract.
Fabric reactions in North American blastomycosis proceed in 4 stages:
- The formation of tubercular nodules from giant and epithelial cells that contain elements of the fungus.
- Development of on-site nodules of abscesses formed by polymorphic-nuclear cells-leukocytes surrounding the fungus cells.
- Education of necrosis sites that look like tuberculosis caselas. The cells of education contain a large amount of fungus.
- Development of fibrosis, at this stage, the cells of the pathogen are practically absent in the cells of the lesion.
The basis for diagnosis of North American Blastomycosis is the study of clinical manifestations and laboratory tests.
For research on the diagnosis of blastomycosis, separable from lesions on the skin, punctate abscesses, separation from the genital organs are used. The material is examined uncolored, placing it in a drop of warmed 10% solution of alkali. The study is conducted with a large increase in the microscope.
To detect fungal cells, cause blastomycosis, Gram-Weigert coloring methods, McManus-Hockswass, Romanovsky-Gimse also used.
Mushrooms causing North American blastomycosis differ from candida fungi in larger sizes, rounded form, lack of pseudomyceses.
For the culture of the fungus, different nutrient media( agar, meat-peptone broth, Saburo, etc.) are used. Seeds are obtained when maintaining the medium under normal conditions and in a thermostat at 37 degrees.
Treatment for North American Blastomycosis requires a comprehensive approach:
- The main drug for conservative treatment with blastomycosis in North America is Amphotericin B or Ancotyl. These drugs are administered intravenously. Additionally, inhalations or oral administration of Imidazole-based preparations may be administered.
- In case of insufficient effect of conservative blastomycosis therapy, surgical operation is prescribed. There is a radical excision of the cell of lesions on the skin. According to testimony, salpingo-vasectomy( complete removal of the ovary and fallopian tube) or hysterectomy( uterus removal) may be performed. Before the operation, thorough preparation of the patient, in which the use of antifungal therapy is used, is carried out.
- External Blastomycosis Therapy. Cells of skin lesions with blastomycosis are treated with antimycotic and antibacterial ointments, iodine preparations. In the presence of abscesses, their disclosure is carried out, flushing of fistulas is carried out.
Treatment with folk remedies
With the North American blastomycosis, folk remedies can be used additionally. Here are some well-documented recipes:
Forecast and prevention of
Prophylaxis of the spread of North American blastomycosis is the early detection of patients carrying out disinfection measures. All patients need to be isolated, and their personal belongings must be sanitized.
Prognosis with North American Blastomycosis, provided that it is well-timed and timely, is favorable.