Disease Of The Skin

Focal alopecia: causes, classification, treatment

In most people, healthy hair grows out of the hair follicle and lives for about 2 years, making it possible to grow during this time( in the absence of a haircut) to about 90 cm. Then the hair falls out, and in its place grows new. Each healthy person per day loses, according to

of different researchers, from 30 to 50 hair. In their place, over time, there are as many new hair, same thickness, length and color. The condition in which the amount of hair falling out exceeds the number of newly raised, is called baldness or alopecia.

Focal alopecia ( Alopecia areata, nest mastoid, circular baldness) is an acquired pathological hair loss in a limited area of ​​the skin, in the form of rounded foci of various sizes.


  • 1 Classification
  • 2 Causes and mechanism of development of
  • 3
    • treatment strategy 3.1 Influence on the nervous system state of
    • 3.2 Glucocorticoids and cytostatics
    • 3.3 Non-specific and robust treatment of
    • 3.4 Local irritants
  • 4 Typical
  • errors 5 Instead of the conclusion


Focal alopecia: causes, classification, treatmentThe following types of focal alopecia are distinguished:

  • Focal - one or several rounded lesions of hair loss of different sizes.
  • Subtle - hair loss of 50% or more of the head area, as a rule, only a small amount of hair is stored in the border area.
  • Total - hair loss in all areas of the head, including eyebrows, beards, mustache, etc.
  • Universal - complete loss of body hair.
  • Craiova( odeasis) - more common in children, hair falls on the edge of the scalp, mostly affected by the occipital area and whiskey. In most cases, this form of hair loss does not fall completely, for a long time in the affected areas, a small fluff remains.
  • Dermatitis( idiopathic trichoclasia) - in small areas of the skin, mainly in the frontal or parietal areas, the hair breaks apart at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from the skin.

Causes and mechanism of development of

Causes of focal alopecia are still not fully understood. There are several theories of pathogenesis( mechanism of development) of this disease, but each of them has among scientists as its supporters and opponents.

  • Psychoemotional stress. Influence of acute or chronic traumatic situation is indicated in 87% of patients with focal alopecia. The connection of this situation with baldness is still unclear. In addition, the study of the psycho-emotional state of people with baldness is associated with some difficulties, since the fact of hair loss causes most patients depression.
  • Autoimmune reaction - a malfunction in the immune system, as a result of which it attacks its own hair follicles. The most popular theory. Launches the mechanism in this case may be trauma or infectious diseases. Also, focal alopecia may be a symptom of some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Genetic predisposition. It is proved that focal alopecia is a clan disease. Most likely, not the baldness itself is inherited, but the tendency toward it.
  • Treatment Strategy Influence on the state of the nervous system

    Focal alopecia: causes, classification, treatment Quite trivial thought: "Treatment must be preceded by careful diagnosis" - absolutely true for any illness, including for baldness. In order to adequately influence the state of the nervous system, it must be studied qualitatively. Therefore, for any patient with nasal alopecia, a psychologist or a psychiatrist should be consulted, as the medication influence on the psyche can be very different:

    • with increased excitability shows sedative drugs - valerian, sodium bromide, pustrynika, novopasit and others.
    • in case of neurosis with predominance of inhibition processes, psychostimulants are required - caffeine, ginseng, guarana extract, and others.
    • with psychopathy - tranquilizers( diazepam, mebuter)
    • with neurasthenia - multivitamins, mildronate,
    • with posttraumatic syndrome - Actovagin.

    Positive influence on the psychological status is provided by: massage, acupuncture, hypnosis, autotraining and neurolinguistic programming.

    Glucocorticoids and cytostatics

    Since the autoimmune alopecia emergence theory is the most "modest", it implies the use of the above drugs as locus of the local immune response.

    Corticosteroids( triamcinolone, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone) can be used internally and locally. The use of pill forms is fraught with a large number of side effects, which are far more dangerous than the baldness itself. For this reason, the most popular are creams, ointments and gels, which are applied several times a day to the affected area.

    Cytostatics( cyclosporine, tacrolimus) are highly effective drugs, but there are no forms for local use, and systemic applications are dangerously severe complications such as renal insufficiency. Therefore, in the United States, the use of cytostatics for baldness is prohibited.

    Non-specific and robust treatment for

    Focal alopecia: causes, classification, treatment Positive effect in alopecia can be achieved using multivitamin complexes, aloe extract, Actovegin.

    A good effect of enterosorbents is shown: polyfepam, enterosgel, etc.

    Spasmolytics( papaverine), angioprotectors( pentoxifylline), antihistamines( loratadine) can be successfully applied.

    Local irritants

    The oldest and most numerous group of drugs. Causes irritation of the skin, up to dermatitis or chemical burn, which stimulates hair growth. The mechanism of action to the end has not been studied.

    The list of local irritants is quite large, I will list only the most popular: anthralin, ammonium, carbolic acid, iodine, formaldehyde solution, dibutyl ether.

    The so-called "folk" methods include garlic juice, red pepper tincture, camphor oil, rapeseed oil, and others.

    Typical Mistakes

  • Faith in a Miracle Tablet. Miracles, unfortunately, do not happen, just as there is no "miracle-means" capable of curing baldness. It is necessary to influence the whole complex of factors causing alopecia, and here one means can not do.
  • Application in a huge amount of shampoos, gels, ointments, creams and other cosmetic products from baldness. It looks like an error from item # 1.Most often, the phrase on a bottle with shampoo "against hair loss" - a cunning marketing move. Such shampoos can be an additional component of treatment, and not a "wand-rumble".
  • Swallowing pills is harmful, it's "chemistry", only folk medicine will help. Of course, garlic or rapeseed oil can help with baldness, but if you have a neurosis or neurasthenia, you can rub a ton of garlic into the scalp, the effect will be zero.
  • Instead of Conclusion

    The treatment of focal alopecia is a long, laborious and costly process. Taking into account multifactorial and non-studying of the disease, it is possible to spend months or even years of treatment, and not achieve any result.

    However, you can approach the problem from the other side. What is hairstyleOnly component of the fashion. So can he stop destroying himself because of her nerves, spending money and shouting shouting? Vin Diesel, Andre Agassi, Gosha Kutsenko, Bruce Willis, Fedor Bondarchuk and many others shave their heads and feel great at the same time. Periodically deprive herself of hair and Hollywood pop singers: Demi Moore, Cynthia Nixon, Natalie Portman, Britney Spears. Can you also look at your hairstyle in a different perspective?