Human brain glioblastoma: symptoms, causes and treatment
- 11 Jul 18:45
In this article, we will tell you about glioblastoma, which is formed in the human brain. You will learn how to diagnose it and how to properly treat glioblastoma. Let's talk about chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Consider a safe method of treating glioblastoma.
The most malignant tumor, according to the classification of the World Health Organization, is glioblastoma of the brain.
- causes of glioblastoma in mind
- Symptoms: focal and cerebral
- diagnosis of tumors in the head
- Methods of treatment of tumors of the brain
- Removal glioblastoma head
causes of glioblastoma in mind
This tumor has four degrees of severity, it saysthe fact that the disease is really extremely difficult. It develops inside the cranial box, and the pace of development is different for each individual case.
Novo-formation consists of various kinds of star-shaped vertebrate cells, also called astrocytes.
One of their features is the ability to reproduce quite quickly, because if compared with the usual neurons that make up the bulk of the brain, then the latter do not have such an ability.
Glioblastoma is found both in adults and in children. However, most cases of illness are recorded in men aged 45 to 60 years.
It should be noted that this diagnosis is approximately 20% of all types of intracerebral tumors.
All glioblastomas of the brain differ in their level of malignancy. The degree is determined by a detailed study of the tumor by specialist doctors who have the necessary skills and knowledge.
Are engaged in the study of a similar problem by physicians-pathomorphologists. To speak briefly, the main feature that determines the degree of malignancy of glioblastoma is the number of differentiated cells.
It is important to note the fact that such cells are close to normal astrocytes. For example, for multiform glioblast the low level of differentiation is considered typical, and accordingly, such cells are not observed.
According to histological signs, similar tumors are divided into gliosarcoma, giant cell and multiform. Talking about the first type of tumor, it is a glioblastoma with a special sarcomatous component.
In giant cell disease, the drug has a large number of cells of large size, which, in turn, have several nuclei at once. And, finally, multivariate glioblastomas are a variety of malignant cells that combine with a large number of hemorrhages and blood vessels.
A tumor begins to develop from the glial cells located in the central nervous system, which play a role of delimitation, and also exist as some support for neurons.
Standard causes are not known at present by any scientist, although they are constantly active in this direction. It was once believed that the main provocateurs of the disease are the rays of the electromagnetic field, but soon such a theory was denied.
The following categories of people fall into the risk group as a whole:
- Male Representatives.
- People aged 45 to 60 years.
- Patients who are exposed to ionizing radiation.
- Those who are exposed to different chemical substances.
- People who experience genetic disorders as a consequence of some illnesses.
There is information that about 10% of the tumors are secondary, which means that they begin to develop from astrocytic glioblast of a low degree of malignancy.
Various hereditary factors, viral diseases, and the presence of contaminated negative elements in the bloodstream may be provokers of glioblastoma.
The pathogenesis of
Typically, this type of tumor has the ability to develop in the frontal and temporal areas of humans. Most of glioblastoma affects the corpus callosum, and eventually it covers both hemispheres.
Scientists also note the presence of huge multicore cells, a large number of split cells, and cellular polymorphism.
Thus, there are pathological vessels, and then arteriovenous type shunts are formed. In tissues of the tumor, large areas of hemorrhage and necrosis begin to form. Often, using the method of angiography, it is possible to detect a pathological network consisting of vessels filled with veins contrast.
Signs: focal and cerebral
All possible symptoms are divided into two large categories - focal and cerebral. In turn, the latter are divided into vestibular syndromes and hypertensives-hydrocephalus.
These signs include constant nausea, weakness of the body, headaches with a rebounding nature.
Subsequently, the vestibular syndrome is able to bring to the patient a noticeable disturbance of stroke, as well as frequent dizziness.
If we talk about the pivotal signs, then everything is a bit different.
First and foremost, they depend on the specific location of the tumor, and most often they include memory reduction, severe speech impairment, lack of ability to exercise heavy physical activity, and also changing the psychological sphere.
In some situations, during a short period of time, severe headaches and general weakness of the body are felt.
There is also a high probability of developing a hemorrhagic stroke as a result of a severe hemorrhage directly in the tissue of glioblastoma.
If there is 4 degrees of glioblastoma of the brain, then the consequences may be the worst, that is, the patient will die, it is almost impossible to treat such a disease.
It is worth noting that the tumor depends on its size and cytological nature.
in the head. The diagnosis of glioblastoma usually involves the use of MRI( Magnetic Resonance Imaging) as well as a procedure such as a trepane biopsy.
Thanks to the analysis of the latest research, one can see the death of individual cells, as well as their necrosis.
The most simple way to check human brain for the presence of tumors in it is magnetic resonance imaging.
In addition, MRI is also used to scan the patient's brain. In the vein, the required amount of special contrast medium is introduced and, thus, there is an opportunity to carefully study glioblastoma.
In some individual cases, radiation oncologists prefer to use the MRI method with frameless stereotactic tracking.
Everything is done as follows - special markers are placed under the skin of the patient, and research data appears on the computer. Due to this process, it is possible to determine the location of the tumor.
Recently, scientists have developed a completely new system called "Cybernetics", which provides a good opportunity for radiation oncologists and surgeons to use magnetic resonance imaging not only for disease prevention, but also for its effective treatment.
Methods of treating newborns of the brain
Treatment of glioblastoma of the brain is carried out using many methods. The most important thing is to choose the right drugs that will be effective in the future.
To do this, take into account a large number of factors, in particular, the general health of the patient, his age and sex, and also at what stage of development there is a tumor.
Treatment by chemotherapy. Sessions of chemotherapy are performed together with radiotherapy. As a rule, treatment in this way lasts about 7-8 cycles, which, in turn, are carried out within 5-7 days.
If a child acts as a patient, this therapy is used instead of radiation therapy, since the effects have the ability to negatively affect the overall development of the brain in children.
This treatment option should only be used when a complete patient examination is performed and all benefits and disadvantages are thoroughly analyzed. In addition. The patient is also prescribed supportive therapy. In this case, doctors most often prescribe the drug Temodal. Take it about a month after the course of radiation therapy has ended.
Use this medication for 6 short courses lasting 5 days each. We must make a break between them - at least 25 days. Avastin is another drug that can be used to treat glioblastoma of the brain. It is worth noting that it has a very specific mechanism of action.
If briefly, then such a drug is some antibodies to the growth factor, which is produced by the endothelium of vessels, have a malignant nature. Thus, there is a formation of the vascular network in the tumor, which eventually positively blood supply to the patient's body.
Treatment with Radiation Therapy. This method is appropriate in most situations after surgical procedures have been performed.
It should be noted that with the help of surgical intervention it is not always possible to completely remove the tumor, and therefore, over time, the remaining malignant cells begin to multiply and glioblastoma increases again.
With radiotherapy, the tumor can be completely removed, especially if it is in an uncomfortable place to perform surgery.
But, despite the positive characteristics, radiotherapy is inherent and side effects. These side effects include weakness of the body, nausea, hair loss, fatigue.
In addition, tissues located in the brain may swell, and the head then begins to hurt. The main advantage of radiation therapy is the fact that it eliminates exclusively malignant cells, while healthy ones are not affected at all.
Glioblastoma by radiotherapy is treated with several sessions at once. Most importantly, the area of exposure to the rays completely covers the diseased parts of the brain.
Another important fact to be noted. The fact is that each individual session is not only destructive to pathological cells, but also the overall health of the patient!
Removal of glioblastoma from the head of the
There are situations where glioblastoma can not be cured by surgery. But, if you know exactly where to have a malignant tumor, it is likely to be removed.
Thus, the life of the patient is significantly lengthened. One can conclude that it is best to remove glioblastoma than to use chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Before taking the necessary surgery, the patient drinks a special solution. After that, protoporphyrin appears in large quantities in the cells of glioblastoma.
Thus, the contours of the tumor, which are clearly visible in a special illumination, appear to be more clear. In most cases, this method is very effective, therefore, it is used in many situations.