Skin allergy tests - causes, methods, contraindications
- 11 Jul 11:15
- Disease Of The Skin
Diseases of allergic nature are occurring more and more today. The reason for this is bad ecology, malnutrition with a lot of artificial additives, and hypodynamia. To adequately treat an allergy, you need to know which substances cause non-standardbody reactions. And it is possible to find out by doing skin allergic tests.
There are various allergy tests - direct and indirect, quantitative and qualitative. However, all samples have a common feature - in the process of testing, skin contact with a possible allergy caustic agent is carried out.
Allergy tests are possible only during the remission period, that is, in the absence of acute allergy symptoms.
- 1 In which diseases can a patient be referred to an allergy test?
- 2 How do research occur?
- 2.1 SCARIFYING TEST
- PRACTICAL TESTS 2.3 APPLICATIONS Sample
- 3 What are direct, indirect and provocative tests?
- 4 Where do you test for allergies?
- 5 When will the results be?
- 6 How should a patient prepare for the study?
- 7 Contraindications
In which diseases can a patient be referred to an allergy test?
Allergic skin tests are necessary for patients with the following diseases:
- Allergic dermatitis. This disease manifests itself by the appearance of rash on the skin and severe itching. The following types of diseases are fashionable: allergy to latex, allergic dermatitis on cosmetics and allergic dermatitis on footwear.
- Medicinal allergic dermatitis. This is a disease that manifests itself in allergic reactions to some medications. For example, a medical rash, Lyell's syndrome.
- Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. I will be manifested by non-vitality, tearing and reddening of the eyes.
- Food allergies.
- Bronchial asthma, etc.
How do research occur?
Allergy tests are a specific diagnostic method for which there is a tremendous amount of drugs( over 3000 and this number is constantly increasing).
The basis of the drug is an irritant that can provoke the development of allergies. For the production of diagnostic tests, pollen is used, concentrated home dust, animal wool, various food and chemical stimuli. There are several methods for performing allergy tests that differ in the technique of conducting.
This allergy test has been used for a long time, but still remains one of the most informative and accurate. The procedure is as follows:
At the end of the test period, the doctor should look at the hand to determine which drugs have a skin reaction in the form of slight redness and swelling.
This test method is very similar to the one described above. The difference is that after applying the drops of the dasg do not scrub the skin scarifier, and puncture with disposable needles.
Today, application samples are made using sticky test strips.
This is a ready-made diagnostic drug that contains various allergens. On one strip can be applied up to 10 varieties of allergens.
The test is carried out as follows:
- The undamaged part of the skin( more often on the back) is further cleansed;
- Produces gluing test strips.
- Patient should not remove strips or take a shower for two days.
- After removing the strips, the doctor will be able to evaluate the results of skin reactions tests.
At one time, as a rule, conduct tests with no more than 15 allergen drugs. In the case of a quantitative test, one and the same allergen can be used for the analysis, but taken in different concentrations.
What are direct, indirect and provocative tests?
Direct allergological tests are called a method of research aimed at diagnosing a particular disease. Samples are conducted either by the method of application of test strips, or by drawing on a small morning drops of an allergen drug. If the patient has an allergy to the drug used, then in his place of influence there will be redness and slight edema.
Indirect tests are carried out by holding a hypodermic injection with the administration of the solution of the anticipated allergen. After that, the patient undergoes a blood test to determine the content of antibodies. By this test, the type of allergic reaction is determined.
The need for provocative tests occurs if the data of the anamnesis and the data obtained by conducting direct and indirect skin tests do not coincide. During the test, the patient subcutaneously administered a solution of a certain stimulus, after which, the administration of serum derived from the blood of a person who is sick with this type of allergy is administered. The skin reaction and the results of the blood test concludes how dangerous this allergen is for the patient being examined.
Where do you test for allergies?
Allergy tests are carried out in the treatment room of the clinic by a physician allergist. Despite the fact that application test strips can be freely purchased in pharmacies, it is not recommended to conduct an analysis on its own, as an expert can only adequately evaluate the results of the tests.
In addition, it can not be ruled out that a patient may develop an unusual reaction during the course of the analysis, and may need emergency help. Therefore, testing for allergies outside the medical facilities is prohibited.
When will the results be?
Depending on the type of test performed, the test result will be ready in 20 minutes-6 hours or 2 days. The patient will be given a list of allergens that were used in the study and the type of reaction to their effects.
There are 4 types of skin reactions:
- Weak Positive;
How should a patient prepare for the study?
As already mentioned, it is possible to conduct research only in the absence of acute symptoms. It is important that from the moment of the last exacerbation it took at least 30 days. To make the results of the tests more informative, you need to prepare properly for the survey.
It is important not to take antihistamines on the eve of the test. If a patient undergoes any course of treatment, then it will be necessary to inform the doctor. It is likely that it will be necessary to postpone the trial until the end of the course.
Application of preparations is possible only on pure skin, therefore the doctor before the tests will take place place of the preparation with a swab moistened with alcohol.
Does not carry out skin allergy tests if:
- A patient with acute respiratory viral infections or any other infectious disease;
- The patient experiences an exacerbation of an allergy or other chronic disease;
- The patient undergoes hormonal treatment;
In addition, allergic skin tests are not conducted in patients over the age of 60 years, as well as in pregnant women.
Complications in skin allergic tests are rare but can not be ruled out. Complications show allergic reactions up to the development of anaphylactic shock.