Echoencephalography of the brain( EhoEg): how they do, deciphering the results
- 07 Jul 21:30
Echoencephalography of the brain is referred to as the method of studying the structures of the human brain. This method is based on the properties of certain ultrasonic waves.
This method is used for both children and adults in the most extreme situations, that is, then,when there is a serious threat to life in the form of a certain pathology of the brain.
- How is EhoEg done?
- When do research?
- Preparation Procedure for
- How do the results be decoded?
- Features of Echo-Study
- Patient Feedback
How is EhoEg done?
During a deformation of a plate located in the probe, a special ultrasonic signal is obtained, through which the research itself is carried out. This disc has the ability not only to send the necessary signals, but at the same time and take it in the reflected form. The causes of the appearance of diseases of this nature can be severe trauma to the skull, tumors, abscesses, hemorrhages.
Various types of tissues are characterized by different levels of density required for ultrasonic waves. Both skin and subcutaneous tissue have the same reflected signal, while fluid education has a completely different signal, and the typical brain tissue is the third one. Thus, there is a process of forming an image on the monitor screen.
It should be noted that at present, such a procedure is more than just a modern one. Doctors have the opportunity to conduct the necessary research not only in one-dimensional mode, but even in a two-dimensional form.
Due to the first technique, a graph is drawn which shows several peaks indicating the internal state of the structure of the cranium box. When conducting a two-dimensional version of the study, a flat image will be displayed on the screen of the monitor.
When do research?
Echoencephalography of the brain is required in order to detect possible diseases that may occur as a consequence of other diseases, namely:
- Brain TB;
- Brain Abscess;
- Ischemic Stroke;
- Various inflammatory diseases in the brain;
- Tumor in the skull;
- The brain of the brain;
- A hemorrhage inside the brain or skull;
- Assessment of hydrocephalus, in particular, its degree;
Control the effectiveness of treatment for various pathology of the cranium box. Two-dimensional echoencephalography is used as an additional diagnosis in the detection of the following symptoms and pathologies:
- Brain Lung
- Severe headaches;
- Brain Sharp;
- Parkinson's disease;
- Dystonia of the vegetative-vascular nature of the disease;
- Symptoms of Pituitary tumor;
Significant disturbances in blood supply to important organs due to damage to certain areas of the vertebral artery. As already mentioned, this study is not intended only for adult patients, but also for children.
Of course there are some differences between the body of the child and the adult, and therefore this procedure is conducted in a bit different situations than in adults. Echoencephalography in the child is prescribed in the following cases:
- When there is a permanent sleep disorder;
- At the impact of the cranium box;
- If there is a hyperactivity syndrome that is accompanied by a lack of attention from other people;
- The level of development in the physical plane is delayed;
- The degree of hydrocephalus is evaluated;
- If there is stuttering, enuresis, encorpore and other diverse neurological reactions.
Study Preparation Procedure for
Echoencephalography of the brain in adults and children is a method of study that absolutely does not require a future patient of any particular training.
There is no point in either staying for a certain period of time on a diet, drinking for this special liquid or just starving for a few days. This survey is applicable at any age.
In addition, a woman who is in a position or breastfeeding during this period can even pass the required course. There is probably only one limitation.
The fact is that if there are open wounds on the head area where the sensor is to be placed, it is much better to have some other method of studying the brain substance, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging or computer tomography.
In situations where a small child acts as a patient, it is necessary to resort to the assistance of his parents so that they keep the baby's head in the same position for a certain period of time.
A procedure such as echoencephalography of the brain, usually performed in a lying position, but in some individual situations, the patient may during the study and sit.
This method of study is often used as a so-called emergency diagnosis, and therefore all the necessary preparations are small in size and they are very convenient to transport from one place to another.
One-dimensional echoencephalography can be performed both in the doctor's specialist's office and in the car "Ambulance".In addition, sometimes this procedure is carried out even at the patient's home or on the street.
In short, there are no limitations in this regard, as all the necessary preparations can be easily delivered to the necessary point, most importantly, the equipment is equipped with a powerful battery. The research lasts approximately 10 - 15 minutes and is carried out in two stages:
Transmission. In this situation, two special ultrasound sensors are used, which physicians install at the same time on the opposite sides of the patient's head, but necessarily on the same axis.
Everything acts on the following principle: first send a signal to one probe, and then the other one receives the same signal. Thus, there is an opportunity to calculate the figure that the experts call the "middle line of the head".
As a rule, such a line is completely identical with the anatomical middle line when there are some sores of brain tissue, and if too much blood is accumulated under the periosteum or in the cavity of the cranium box.
Emission mode. Only one sensor is used here, which experts install in those parts of the brain where ultrasound has the ability to most successfully break through the cranial bone.
It is worth noting that such a sensor is slightly shifted in order to choose the most effective and informative image.
Two-dimensional echoencephalography is an opportunity to obtain if gradually move the sensor over the surface of the patient's cranial box. In this case, the doctor will be able to see on the monitor screen a horizontal section of the brain that can be detected due to the constant movement of the same sensor.
Needless to say about the undeniable drawback of this method. The fact is that it can not be called perfectly precise if it is equated to small pathological centers, because the displacement of the probe in a large number of cases can produce artifacts.
It is for this reason that physicians recommend in situations when it comes only to procedures for primary diagnosis of some minimal pathologies from the brain, then a more effective method will be the conduct of magnetic resonance imaging, and not echoencephalography of the brain.
How are the results deciphered?
The brain encephalogram is treated equally for adults as well as for children.
It should be noted that it is difficult for an ordinary person to understand the data provided to him by a doctor-sologist, and therefore some theoretical aspects need to be known.
The entire process of echoencephalography in its normal state has three main signals, or as they are called specialists - "bursts".
The initial complex - this type of signal is in the immediate proximity of the sensor, and forms its ultrasound, which is displayed under the skin, muscles, skull bones and other surface structures.
The median complex( also called M-echo) is a kind of signal that occurs when collisions of ultrasound with the structures of the brain located in the middle, that is, between the two hemispheres of the brain.
The final complex is a signal derived from a solid shell of the human brain, soft tissue, as well as a skull bone that comes from the opposite side of the sensor.
In general, the entire process of echoencephalography consists of a combination of the three above-mentioned complexes, as well as several additional ones that may be involved during the study, and the doctor can refuse them, since they do not see the need for additional measures.
In addition, there are also special pathological signals that appear on a paper or on a monitor screen as a graphic where both the abscissa axis and the ordinate axis are observed.
When conducting echoencephalography, the physician begins deciphering the results first of all by assessing such indicators as M-echo.
This signal should have a clear position, namely to be in the middle between the two complexes. In this way, the doctor is looking for the distance from this point to one and the other complex.
There is some exclusion, which is that a slight deviation of 2 to 3 millimeters is allowed. If there is a displacement of more than 5mm, then this is a rather serious signal and it is necessary to resort to other, more precise methods of research.
The M-echo pulsation must be within the limits of 15 - 30%, and if it increases by about 50-60%, then this indicator suggests that the patient may develop hypertension-hydrocephalic syndrome.
Median Settlement Index. It is calculated exclusively for adults and should be approximately 3.9 - 4. In cases where its reduction to a score of 3.8 and below is likely, then the patient is likely to have very serious intracranial pressure. The signal from the second ventricle can not be split or extended.
In spite of the situation, the decipherment of the study must be carried out by the appropriate physician, namely the neurologist. Only by comparing such an echo-picture with the patient's symptoms is the ability to determine the correct diagnosis, and therefore to appoint the necessary and most effective treatment course.
Features of the
Echo Study This study is based on the same principle as all other medical procedures, and therefore the human factor is of great importance.
Also, the personal experience of the doctor plays a serious role, since each specialist can look at different indicators in his or her own way and have an opinion that does not entirely accord with the opinion of the doctor-sologist, which works much less.
It is imperative that after conducting the EhoEg, you should seek the help of a good specialist so that he will inspect the patient. Only in this case, a person can count on the appointment of an effective course of treatment.
A large number of patients have used this type of survey, and, of course, they have some idea about the procedure. It should be noted that mostly positive reviews. The first thing patients like in this type of research is the effectiveness, as well as the ability to get a lot of useful information.
In addition, the echoencephalography is absolutely painless, which is also considered an undeniable advantage. And, especially, when it comes to the fact that as a patient acts as a small child.
If we talk about the disadvantages, then perhaps the main one is that with this method it is not possible to put an absolutely accurate diagnosis.
It is used to determine the basis that will serve for the operation, but it will still require MRI, CT, or scintigraphy. If you also have this survey, then leave comments, please, your feedback.