Brain Hypoxia: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
- 02 Jul 00:45
Hypocytic cerebrum is considered to be an insufficient amount of oxygen, which primarily afflicts the human brain, which is capable of exhibiting a sufficiently high level of sensitivity to a deficit of such an important gas.
If hypoxia becomes too severe, then the effects ofmay be the worst, from coma to the death of the patient. It should be noted that in some cases, death occurs very quickly, sometimes even within only a few minutes. Speaking about sexual sign, in women such a disease manifests more often than men.
- Types of
- Treatment of
- Consequences Newborns
- Symptoms in Newborns
- Newborn Hypocyte Treatment
There are several types of such diseases, for example, according to the rate of development, hypoxia is lightning, acute, subacute andchronicThe lightning-fast form of the disease develops at the fastest pace, and lasts for several minutes, and sometimes seconds.
Acute form of hypoxia is most often observed after severe poisoning, heart attack, and loss of large amounts of blood. In such a situation, blood is not able to supply oxygen properly in the tissues.
Chronic hypoxia is common in people suffering from heart failure, heart disease or cardiosclerosis.
Also classified forms of hypoxia and depending on the causes that actually caused the disease:
- Exogenous - formed during inhalation of air, which contains an insufficient amount of oxygen, for example, a person who conquered the mountains, was a long period of time in a closed room;
- Respiratory - possible as a result of organ damage to obtain the required amount of oxygen;
- Circulatory - appears, and then quite rapidly develops for certain disorders in the cardiovascular system;
- Gemic - appears as a consequence of lowering the level of oxygen in the blood, for example, during anemia;
- Fabric - is formed as a result of a violation of the absorption of oxygen by human tissues;
- Overload - The cause of this form of hypoxia is the need for an organism in larger quantities of oxygen, for example, a person constantly makes heavy physical activity;
- Mixed - long enough hypoxia, which has the most often severe form, and it can provoke it a whole complex of external and internal factors.
Speaking of signs, it should be noted that brain hypoxia has fairly standard symptoms. First, a person feels the stage of excessive excitability, which was unusual to this time.
During this period, the patient becomes too active, may even fall into a state of euphoria. He actually can not control his own movements, and the move becomes somewhat uncertain.
It is also necessary to pay attention to the condition of the skin, as it can become very pale, blue, or vice versa, too red. In addition to these indicators, in the first stage, it is possible that the person will begin to feel the appearance of such an unpleasant cold sweat.
Then comes the second stage, for which primarily the serious inhibition of the entire nervous system is typical. The patient may complain of frequent dizziness and nausea, and sometimes there is also vomiting.
It may also worsen the eyesight as it is sharp, and there will be some kind of turbidity in the eyes. The situation may deteriorate even worse, until people lose consciousness.
In the most severe cases, such a disease can be accompanied by cerebral edema. In this situation, in the human body, there are very severe disorders in brain activity, since the conditionally lost, and eventually unconditioned reflexes, are lost.
If a person lacks oxygen, then the skin begins to lose its own sensitivity, and then all the organs actually stop functioning properly. In some individual situations, hypoxia can end in a state of deep and prolonged coma.
Diagnosis in the case of brain hypoxia consists of laboratory-instrumental research methods. Pulse Oximetry - this option is considered the most simple and affordable when it comes to this disease.
Everything actually happens as simply as possible - the patient puts a pulse oximeter on his finger and for several seconds the process of oxygen saturation will go. It should be noted that the standard is considered to be at least 95%.
Investigation of acid-base equilibrium. Also, in this variant, the gas composition of both arterial and venous blood is studied. Due to this kind of research it is possible to carry out a quantitative analysis of the main indicators of the organism, in particular, its homeostasis.
These include, in the first place, the partial pressure level of carbon dioxide and oxygen directly, as well as the general state of carbonate and bicarbonate buffers.
Z-Metry and Capnometry. With the help of such methods, research is carried out on those gases that are exhaled by air.
The treatment of brain hypoxia takes into account, first and foremost, the cause of development. That is why people must clearly indicate the possible factors that actually led to the appearance before, and then to the development of the disease.
The most frequent factors are bad habits, including alcohol abuse and long-term exposure to a stuffy and poorly ventilated room.
Depending on the degree of severity, treatment can be done both in the hospital and at home. To the patient the doctor prescribes some drugs, which are mainly aimed at stabilizing the work of his own organism.
In addition, it is imperative for the patient to take the medical products necessary for the restoration of brain tissue, in which case doctors prescribe special vitamins.
As already mentioned above, the treatment of this disease depends on the cause of its occurrence. If, for example, there is a slight degree of disease, then it is quite good to ventilate the room or even make a walk in the fresh air.
A completely different situation when hypoxia has arisen due to blood, heart, lung, and some kind of poisoning, in which case more serious measures will have to be taken. When exogenous hypoxia is observed, it is necessary to resort to the use of special oxygen equipment, such as pillows, masks, cylinders.
In respiratory hypoxia, physicians prefer to prescribe drugs that are intended to expand bronchi, as well as various respiratory antihypoxanes and analeptics. In addition to the above medicines, in some cases it is recommended to use ventilation of the lungs, conducted artificially.
During the observation period of hemic hypoxia, they prefer to prescribe a blood transfusion procedure, as some kind of stimulation of hematopoiesis appears.
In a situation where the patient is ill in a circular form, it is necessary to resort to corrective actions on the vessels or on the heart.
In case of histoconic histonia, special anti-dandruff preparations should be used, in particular if the disease has arisen due to poor ventilation, strong food poisoning.
It's all much easier when the patient has a mild hypoxia of the brain, and especially if the patient turned to the appropriate physician on time and started the course of treatment. In these situations, the forecast will be as favorable as possible.
However, it should be noted that in some situations, when oxygen deficiency is observed over a long period of time, it is possible to begin and to rapidly develop violations of irreversible status, which, unfortunately, are completely unresponsive to any treatment.
When doctors make a prediction for the patient, they first of all pay attention to the degree of damage to the brain. It is determined by the indicator of how long this body was in need of the required amount of oxygen.
If the situation is such that lack of oxygen was only a short period of time, then the coma may well be reversible, and accordingly the patient has excellent chances for a positive result, that is, the restoration of all lost functions of the organism. Brain gipocytes can lead to certain complications, in particular to the vegetative state.
To briefly explain what it is, in this state the patient maintains absolutely all vital functions of life such as breathing, wakefulness, blood pressure, sleep cycle, but at the same time he is not able to react normally to the environment.
As practice shows, such patients live not more than one year, but in some situations, their life is slightly lengthened. Hypoxia can lead to complications such as malnutrition, swaddling, clots in the veins, and infection in the lungs.
Newborns' hypoxia in the brain is a process that occurs when a baby is starving her baby during pregnancy or her childbirth.
It should be noted that if we talk about all the pathologies that are characteristic of the newborn, then the hypoxia is most often stated.
Quite often, such a disease is a serious threat to the child's life. If there is the worst form of illness, then the newborn or remains disabled for life, or dies.
As a result of this disease, not only the individual organs and tissues of the baby suffer, but, in general, the whole of his body. Hypoxia often occurs as a result of prolonged respiratory depression, some newborn baby diseases, fetal asphyxiation, or insufficient oxygen content in the air.
Newborns suffer from hypoxia of the brain, violations that have an irreversible nature may develop, that is, they can no longer be cured in the future by any medical means.
First of all, the central nervous system, the muscles of the heart, kidneys, liver and lungs are able to react to the state of lack of oxygen in the body. There may be several reasons why hypoxia is born in newborns. Reasons, in general, can be divided into four large categories.
Severe mother diseases, in particular, they are pathological during the period of pregnancy, and directly in the process of childbirth itself. For example, the cause of hypoxia may be placental ablation of the previously laid deadline, or the bleeding of a future mother, as well as serious heart defects.
Pathology of umbilical cord blood flow or placental-uterine blood circulation. Such indicators include - collar, collision of the umbilical cord, rupture of its vessels, an extremely prolonged period of childbirth, disturbances in the placenta of the mother of trophic nature, rapid childbirth, child withdrawal with the use of medical instruments.
Genetic disease of the newborn, congenital heart disease, serious anomalies during fetal development, Rhesus conflict on the grounds of the child and mother, injuries inside the cranial box, diseases that are infectious in nature.
Asphyxia of the baby, partially or completely blocking of the respiratory tract.
Symptoms in newborns
If there is hypoxia of the brain in newborns, then at first it will be observed tachycardia, which eventually changes to arrhythmia of tone of the heart and constant noises in the area of the heart.
In the waters that are near the fetus, there is meconium. The child inside the womb begins to make a large number of movements, but eventually degrades its own activity. Also, the child has numerous thrombi and hemorrhages in the tissue, but small scales.
Newborn Hypoxia Treatment
Newborns are treated differently than adults. If doctors have the slightest suspicion of hypoxia even during the period of pregnancy, everything is done in order to significantly accelerate the process of labor, but do not cause any other illness.
For this purpose use special obstetric forceps or resorted to a cesarean section. Immediately after the baby is born, he has access to the required amount of oxygen.
If the condition of the newborn is relatively normal, then it is placed in a room where oxygen access is necessary, and in more severe cases, the child is in the baroque chamber.
When taking birth, apply special medical products that improve various metabolic processes in the human body, as well as improve the quality of blood circulation in the placenta.
In the case of hypoxia, a newborn is often preferred to resort to a complex of reanimation measures, which can completely release the child's respiratory tract from excessive mucus, and also provide an artificial respiration process.
Thus, the nourishing solutions of glucose, etymizole, sodium gluconate of bicarbonate are also introduced. Such procedures are conducted on a permanent basis without interrupting the treatment process until the patient's state of health is not normalized.
In the future, the child who managed to carry such a disease at birth must be under the supervision of doctors, namely pediatricians, who will monitor changes in his body.
It should be noted that in each case, it is possible to conduct an effective course of treatment and thus deprive the child of the disease forever. In some situations, the newborn can not be completely cured, and therefore the patient remains disabled for life.
He can also lag behind his peers both mentally and physically. Therefore, doctors recommend that some prophylactic procedures be performed during pregnancy, which can prevent the onset of such a disease.