Disease Of The Skin

Onychomycosis proximal - causes, symptoms, treatment, photos

Onychomycosis is a defeat of nails caused by fungi. This is a fairly common disease. Fungal diseases of nails occur in 15-20% of the inhabitants of the planet. Among other nail diseases, the share of onychomycosis accounts for about 30%.

Onychomycosis proximal is found to be much less common than fungal lesions of the distal( although free) part of the nail. This type of disease develops in the event that the pathogen penetrates into the nail plate on the proximal nail plate.


  • 1 Causes of development of
    • 1.1 Etiology
  • 2 Clinical picture of
  • 3
  • diagnostic methods 4 Treatment of
    • 4.1 External and systemic drugs
    • 4.2 Surgical methods
    • 4.3 Treatment of folk methods
  • 5 Forecast and prevention of
  • 6 Photo

Causes of development of

Onychomycosis proximal causes, symptoms, treatment, photo Onychomycosis developsas a result of infecting the nail with fungi. Infection often occurs in public swimming pools, saunas, showers and other places with high humidity. The source of infection is a person with onychomycosis.

The sickle leaves of the patient containing pathogenic fungi fall on the floor, benches, paths, etc. Fungi are quite resistant to external influences and can be stored and even actively propagated in conditions of sufficient heat and humidity for a long time. It is also possible to transfer fungi using common footwear, wipes, towels and other things.

Contributes to penetration of the nail trauma causative agent, as well as chronic diseases associated with disturbance of the circulation of the limbs and a decrease in immunity. Often onychomycosis develops in people who undergo a long course of treatment with antibiotics, hormonal drugs or immunosuppressive drugs.

Often onychomycosis is a secondary disease that develops on the background of fungal lesions of the interdigital folds or foot mycosis. However, it is possible and isolated lesion of nails.

Proximal onychomycosis develops in cases where fungi penetrate the posterior cavity. Often, this form of the disease develops in people who, for cosmetic purposes, remove eponymous( cuticle).In addition, the proximal type of onychomycosis is characteristic of HIV-infected people.


To date, scientists know more than five dozen varieties of fungi that can provoke onychomycosis development. However, in the vast majority of cases, the disease is caused by dermatomycetes. In particular, in the Eurasian and North American continent, the most common pathogens of onychomycosis are Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrohytes( causing such diseases: trichomycosis, mycosis); less evolution of the disease provokes Epidermophyton floccozum or Candida yeast fungi.

Clinical picture of

The clinical picture of proximal onychomycosis is very similar to the symptoms of distal fungal lesion of the nails, which occurs most often. Only the process of destroying the nail does not start from the free edge, but from the peroneal hole. In addition, with proximal onychomycosis in the pathological process, the nail base is matrix rapidly retracted.

A disease begins with the appearance of white or yellow spots on the nail plate at the posterior nail plate. As the onychomycosis develops, the following symptoms are observed:

  • Redness and inflammation of the oculogonal cavities;
  • Dissection of the nail plate from the nail bed;
  • Dystrophic changes in the nail and destruction of the plate( colonic, leukoniasis, melanoconiosis, onychogryphosis, etc.).

Due to the fact that proximal onychomycosis begins to develop in the region of the nail base, pathological processes that cause the destruction of the plate occur at this type of disease much faster.

Diagnostic Methods

Proximal onychomycosis has a characteristic clinical picture, however, in the process of diagnosis necessarily conduct a series of analyzes. The fact that such changes in the nails can cause other infections, so to obtain the results of laboratory tests can not be sure of the correctness of the diagnosis.

  • The needle should be well cleaned with alcohol to remove dirt and bacteria that can distort the picture for microscopic examination.
  • Then you will need to take a small piece of nail for analysis. In proximal onychomycosis, the material is taken from an area close to the cuticle.
  • The resulting sample is sent for microscopic and cultural studies. For microscopic studies, the sample of the nail is placed in a solution of potassium hydroxide or dimethyl sulfoxide. In addition, various methods of coloring the sample can be used to better understand the structure of the fungal pathogen through a microscope.
  • Cultural studies consist of seeding the material obtained on different nutrient media. This method allows you to accurately determine the type of pathogen and to check which drugs most effectively deal with fungal infection.
  • Treatment of

    The proximal onychomycosis treatment technique is chosen depending on the prevalence of the process, the number of affected nails, the general health status and age of the patient. For treatment of fungal infection of nails therapeutic and( less often) surgical methods are used.

    External and systemic drugs

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat, since nails( especially on the toes) grow slowly and provide much less blood than other tissues. Nevertheless, in most cases, it is necessary to use combined therapy with the use of systemic and external drugs. Limit the use of external resources only in the initial stages of defeat of the nail, and provided that onychomycosis is detected only 1-2 nails.

    Modern drugs for the treatment of onychomycosis are quite effective, however, their uncontrolled intake threatens the development of various complications. Therefore, it is important that the drug for the treatment of fungus nails picked up by experienced physician.

    Onychomycosis proximal causes, symptoms, treatment, photo

    A remedy such as terbinafine is used for treatment.

    The systemic drugs used to treat onychomycosis today are such antifungal agents as terbinafine( lamizil in tablets, etc.), intranaconal( orungal, etc.).Preparations of the old generation( such as grizeofulvin) are currently prescribed rarely, only if there are individual contraindications for the treatment of modern remedies.

    The course of treatment with antifungal systemic agents is 3-6 months, and with the use of first-generation drugs - up to a year. Any antifungal agents used to treat onychomycosis have a negative effect on liver function. Therefore, often before the appointment of drugs and in the process of their appointment is intended to conduct analyzes aimed at detecting violations of liver function.

    Diflucan and other fluconazole-based drugs used to treat onychomycosis are uncommon. Typically, these drugs are prescribed when intolerance to the patient is itraconazole and terbinafine.

    For external treatment, use solutions, ointments or varnishes that are applied to the patient's nail. Modern external preparations are made on the basis of amorolfine, sodium pyrithione, bixfonol, ketoconazole.

    It is very important to completely complete the course of onychomycosis treatment, since if the therapy is not completed and the fungus is not completely eliminated, the relapse occurs in 100% of cases.

    Surgical methods

    When fungal lesions of most of the plate it is rational to remove the patient's entire nail. However, patients should be aware that the removal of the nail without additional antifungal therapy is not an effective method. Therefore, after the operation, the appointment of medication is mandatory.

    A new way of treating onychomycosis is the use of laser therapy. Laser beams penetrate the thickness of the nail and kill the fungi. Laser treatment of onychomycosis is very effective and safe, but because of the high cost, this method of treatment is rarely used.

    Treatment of folk methods

    There are many folk recipes for the treatment of onychomycosis. However, the effectiveness of these agents can be compared with the effectiveness of modern antifungal drugs, so folk recipes are recommended only as an add-on to the main treatment.

    To deal with fungal infection of nails will help vinegar apple. It is recommended to use it for the preparation of baths and compresses.

    • To prepare a bath for treatment of onychomycosis, it is recommended to mix natural apple cider vinegar with water in a proportion of 1 to 3. Then add a little manganese to the solution. Make a bath, dropping the nails in the prepared solution for 15 minutes.
    • For preparation of lotions it is necessary to take 50 grams of dry grass of celandine and pour half a liter of apple cider vinegar. To insist for at least a month, to strain the loan and use the resulting fluid for compresses on the affected fungal infection of the nail.

    Prognosis and prevention of

    With timely initiated and persistent treatment of proximal onychomycosis, it is beneficial. However, the disease is prone to recurrence, so it is important to always keep in mind prevention measures.

    To prevent infection with onychomycosis it is recommended:

    • Do not use someone else's shoes.
    • When visiting public baths or showers, you need to use individual rubber footwear.
    • To prevent fungal penetration into the nail plate through the nail plate, cuticle removal should be avoided. When performing the pedicure, the cuticle should be simply gently moved, preventing it from being damaged.


    Onychomycosis proximal causes, symptoms, treatment, photo Onychomycosis proximal causes, symptoms, treatment, photo Onychomycosis proximal causes, symptoms, treatment, photo