Cherry tree. Description, photo of fruits and inflorescences
- 21 Nov 08:00
Cherry ordinary people are grown everywhere since ancient times, and it's impossible to know where the first wild tree grew, which then cultivated. Nowadays more than twenty countries of the world produce cherries on a large scale. This is a unique tree in which theuses not only fruits, but also leaves, bark, and wood.
A brief description of the plant
- Appearance: a leafy tree or shrub 1.5 to 5 meters tall, leaves leaves fall-winter.
- Fruit: Sweet and juicy juicy berries, red, dark red or black bunch, containing one stone.
- Origin: Subfamilies of the genus Plum, Rosy family.
- Life expectancy: twenty five - thirty years.
- Frost resistance is high.
- Watering: moderate, drought-tolerant plant.
- Soil: neutral, well-fertilized.
- Relation to light: light-loving plant.
Flowering cherries common
Flowering cherries in the spring is a beautiful sight. No wonder this tree is found in the literary works of various writers. In Shevchenko Ukrainian hut in the village is necessarily decorated with a cherry orchard. Everyone knows the work of A.P. Chekhov "Cherry Orchard".Flowers cherries are small white or pink, collected in inflorescences of umbrellas, bloom in early or late May, early June, depending on the variety and climate. Fragrant flowers are good honey. Bees collect pollen and nectar from them.
In Japan, cherry blossoms are a national holiday celebrated at home and at work. Celebrate right in the nature near the fragrant pink flowers of trees, spreading warm blankets on the ground. Sakura blossoms in March-early April. It is a decorative tree, but some varieties produce small sour fruits, similar to cherries, which the Japanese consider to be very useful and highly valued.
The common cherry, which is the ancestor of most varieties, is also useful and has not only good taste properties but also healing properties.
Chemical composition of fruit cherries
There are early, middle and late varieties of cherries. Early varieties fetch in June, the average - in July, late - in late July, August. Fruits contain:
- sugars 0,8-2,5% acids
- 0,15-0,88% tannins
- Vitamin complex consisting of carotene, folic acid, vitamins B, vitamin C
- Mineral substance
Sugar is contained in fruits in the form of glucose and fructose. Organic acids - citric and malic. Ionizite is a metabolism regulator. Anthocyanins strengthen walls of blood vessels and capillaries. Vitamins provide a strengthening and regulating effect on the whole body.
Use of cherry fruit
Who has not tried a delicious cherry jam? This is a traditional cherry blade prepared in many countries. In addition to jam, make compotes, juice and wine, dried, added as a stuffing in vareniks and pies. Fruits of cherries are eaten and fresh. Many varieties have good taste properties that are good for health due to the high content of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients.
There are also contraindications. You can not eat cherry people suffering from gastric ulcer and gastritis with high acidity. If there is a tendency to allergy, cherry must also be used with caution, as with all the fruits that are red.
Leaves and cherry wood
Leaves of cherries, collected in spring and dried, are used to brew vitamin tea. They contain tannins( petioles), dextrose, sucrose, organic acids and coumarins. Use leaves for picking and marinating various vegetables.
The cedar wood kitchen set
The cherry wood is used for the manufacture of furniture and various wooden items of everyday use. It has a pleasant dark-brown color of different shades and is comfortable in the finish. Highly valued by both consumers and masters.
Landing and care of
Cherry does not like waterlogging of the root system at the expense of groundwater located close to the surface. Bad growth in the shade. Plant the tree in April-September on neutral, fertilized, not very moist soils, in a well-lit place protected from wind.
Planting scheme of cherry seedlings and winter preparation
If the seedlings are bought in late autumn, they are buried in the ground at an angle of forty five degrees and covered with spruce branches, with needles outwards, so that the seedling does not freeze in the winter and its mice are not damaged. Most varieties of cherries begin to bear fruit for the third or fourth year after planting. The young tree requires good care, which consists in loosening the ground in the piercing circles, introducing mineral fertilizers, regular watering, cutting the branches and prophylactic treatments against diseases with a solution of Bordeaux liquid and copper chloride.
Varieties of cherries
There are a large number( about 150) varieties of cherries, differing in weight and taste of fruits, tree yield, resistance to diseases, frost resistance and timing of flowering and fruiting. Consider three varieties common in Russia.
The "Chocolate" variety
A self-producing, high-yielding variety, introduced in Russia in 1996, the height of a tree up to two and a half meters. Annual growth is seventy centimeters in height. The fruits are dark burgundy almost black, weigh three and a half grams. The taste of sweet and sour berries. Blossoms in early May. The fruits ripen in the middle of July. Cooking is widely used for cooking jam, jam, dried berries and compotes. This grade is frost-resistant and drought resistant.
The Vladimirskaya variety
is considered to be the symbol of Vladimir's city, where it has been grown since the sixteenth century. It is a tree consisting of several trunks, from three to five meters in height. The amount of crop depends on the region of cultivation.
You can harvest up to twenty pounds of berries from each tree. The variety is self-perish. In order to catch fruit, you need a growing variety of cherry pollinators in the neighborhood, blossoming simultaneously with samobesplodnym variety. The size of the fruit is small or larger, the color is dark red. The taste is sour and sweet, very pleasant. Berries are used for making jam and jam, dried and frozen. The conditions of landing and care are the same as in most varieties.
The "Shpanka" variety
It has been introduced in Ukraine by the folk selection, a hybrid of cherries and cherries. High tree with rounded crown, self-pollinating. Fruiting is abundant, from an adult tree, which begins to bear fruit for the sixth, seventh year of life, regularly harvested up to 45 kg of cherry. The red fruits have a colorless, yellowish flesh of sweet and sour taste. Weight of the fruit about 5 grams. In addition to traditional billets from the crop of this variety, wine of good quality.
Tree care and planting do not differ from other varieties. The grade is well tolerated by severe frosts, it is better fruited with regular watering and mineral fertilizers, as well as preventive measures against various diseases.