The insulated facade of a residential building automatically results in huge heating bills, and this difference becomes apparent immediately after the insulation work. Similar services are quite common in all cities, but it is possible to insulate the facade of a private home with their own
hands. The main thing is to choose the right heater and know how to handle it.
- Need for insulation
- Facade of buildings: photo
Need for insulation
Heat goes from home for two reasons: through drafts or due to increased heat exchange of walls, foundation or roof with externalthe environment. And if the first problem can be eliminated, restoring the tightness of the door structures, overlappings and simply closing the gap, then to reduce the thermal conductivity of the walls will have to work.
Exterior walls are the largest area through which heat can go, so when building a house, special attention should be paid to their thermal insulation. If the insulated on the wall was insufficient, then lowering the thermal conductivity will allow additional insulation of the facade. Insulated outside the wall, as practice shows, is half as slow as a non-insulated design. Therefore, the use of even light insulation materials will save money on heating.
Choose a heater and the method of mounting it on the wall depending on its design features, as well as the environmental conditions.
Choosing a heater
The better is the insulated facade, the less money will have to spend on heating the house. So what material can you use for this?
First of all, it is necessary to understand what operating characteristics should be facade heater:
- strength and resistance to mechanical influences;
- vapor permeability( at least 5 times more than at the wall);
- fire safety;
- environmental cleanliness;
- minimum water absorption;
- neutral reaction to metal fasteners;
Despite the full validity of the above requirements, they are not in line with all the materials used today to insulate the facades of private and multi-apartment buildings.
The most popular insulation of facades: Foam polystyrene - is the most popular heat-insulating material for external and internal work. The reason for this was faster its cheapness, than excellent quality. Thus, foam polystyrene is quite durable, practically does not tolerate moisture and is versatile in use, but it has serious disadvantages. First of all, it is a fire hazard of the material. By itself, it does not burn, but it quickly begins to melt and at the same time it allocates caustic toxic smoke. Hence, one more disadvantage is that it is uneconomical. Despite the cheapness of the foam polystyrene itself, the insulation of the facade is expensive enough due to the need to use additional protective layers. So, in order to protect the material from ignition, it should be covered with non-combustible material, and that accidental shocks did not violate the integrity of the wall, foam closed with a special grid and apply a layer of facade plaster. The durability of foamed polystyrene treatment depends on the quality of the source material and can range from 10 to 40 years. European scientists conducted experiments that found that foam polystyrene loses its thermal characteristics after 10 years. By the way, about the ability of foam to keep warm. This indicator also depends on the quality of the raw materials, and when buying cheap sheets, one should not expect them to be well protected from the cold. Another "underwater stone" is hiding in the method of mounting foam polystyrene, when between the sheets formed joints - the potential bridges of cold. So, if you plan to heat the facade of the building with foam, you should not be tempted by its low cost - take into account the cost of additional materials( fasteners, mounting net, plaster, etc.).
Foil polyethylene - this material appeared on the market relatively recently, but immediately gained popularity. Imagine a plastic bag, only ten times thicker than usual and in its section visible tiny bubbles of air - this is the foamed polyethylene. It is not very good thermal protection due to its small thickness( up to 10 mm), so to enhance its effect, it is used in conjunction with foil foam or just a sturdy foil so that it reflects heat inside the house. It has almost the same disadvantages as foam polystyrene, but unlike it, it is convenient in terms of transportation( large volumes can be squeezed into a roll).
Mineral wool is a group of mineral wool-based heaters that have a significant advantage over foam - incombustibility. The most common building materials are glass wool and stone wool. Insulating the facade of the house with wool requires careful installation and care. Subsequently, because of the displacement of fibers, eachother appears to be free of heat-insulating areas, through which heat goes. Mineral wool has a lower thermal conductivity than foam polystyrene or foamed polyethylene, but it is afraid of moisture. If you immerse such a heater, it will not protect from the cold, so when installing should take care of the waterproofing of the wall outside of the vapor barrier and inside. Also, the material is low in mechanical strength and requires protective coating and reinforcement of the mounting net. Even mineral wool basalt panels for warming up the facade of the house, which seem solid and strong, require a protective layer of plaster. Over time, heaters of this type settle down, forming voids. They can kill rodents.
Foam concrete and aerated concrete for insulation of the facade of the building are used extremely rarely because they do not meet the requirements for insulation materials. If the wall of the house is built of these materials, it requires additional insulation, and even more - in waterproofing, since the porous structure is able to retain moisture inside.
If you summarize all of the above information, it will be seen that none of the current market of heaters proposed completely does not meet the requirements, and therefore have to choose the best of the available. Most prefer foam polystyrene or insulation of the facade of the building plaster, as we will explain in the next section.
Ways of Insulation
There are two ways to insulate walls inside and outside. Internal warming can also be different, but none of the ways will give the effect that can be achieved by external insulation of the facade. If the wall is insulated only from the inside, then the following occurs: the cold affects the unprotected wall, it freezes deeper and deeper, the frost reaches the heater on the inside of the wall. As is known from the school's physics course, if the cold is sharply exposed to heat, condensation is released. This process takes place inside the wall and in the construction lexicon called "dew point".When the dew point moves inside the wall, it begins to collapse rapidly from the inside.
To avoid such troubles, the walls should be warmed up from the outside. It is safer and more efficient, and you will be sure that the fungus plantation has not grown over the heater.
Technologies of insulation of facades of buildings:
- "wet method" - light or heavy system;
- ventilated facades;
- well trimming.
"Wet facade" is the most common way in which foam polystyrene or mineral wool slabs are used. Depending on the number of insulation layers and materials used, distinguish heavy and light facades. Light facades are cheaper, because they include only a heater, which is covered with a protective coating. The heavy facade consists of a larger number of layers and is characterized by a thicker outer layer of plaster. Due to this, the wall resistance to mechanical damage increases, and the life of the operation increases to 50 years.
There is also a warming up of the facades of the house with modern materials, combined in a multi-layered system. So, at the well masonry, the heater layer is placed between the bearing fence and the protective treatment of the front of the silicate, ceramic or clinker bricks. This allows you to reduce the load on the foundation and provide an attractive appearance of the building. However, between the layers inevitably accumulated condensate, if not install a ventilation system, which is an additional cost.
Ventilated structures are devoid of such a disadvantage and they use special protective screens of sheet or slab materials for finishing treatment. Ventilation is carried out using special equipment and air gap between finishing and insulation.
How to make "wet facade"
As this way of insulation of the facade of the building is the most popular, consider the technology of the work in more detail. First of all, you need to carefully prepare the base - the surface of the wall. Check the condition of the walls, especially if they are covered with plaster( should hold firmly).If in some places the plaster has already started to crack and fall off, then it must be knocked down.
Stages of Creating a Wet Facade: Rinse the surface with water from the hose. It is best to use high-pressure technique to knock out dirt from all cracks. Only a carefully suspended and defatted surface can have good adhesion with the solution on which to glue heater boards. If over time the slabs fall off, it means either the adhesive got bad, or the wall was treated with insufficient care. Check that there are no irregularities on the wall. If found, then it will have to be aligned with plaster or at the expense of a glutinous solution( significantly increase the expense).If the wall crashed completely curve and align it with the plaster will be very expensive, it makes sense to mount a heater on a steel frame. Check the condition of the windows and, if necessary, replace them. If the window frames will not be tight, then through the cracks in them water will leak inside and damage the thermal insulation layer. If you miss a cracks, then over time, the plaster under such a "hole" window will get a darker shade. If there are decorative elements on the wall, they can complicate the work, for example, sill plum, corrugated roof linings or drainpipes, dismantle them for an hour. At the same time the market should be left in its place to the last. Attach sections of the gutters to the ends and sections of the gutter trims. In the process, they will divert rain streams outside the building and will not allow the freshly completed facade to wet. The method of fastening the heater depends on the physical condition of the wall and materials used. So, when insulation of the facade of the building pinpleks use a special glue from dry polymer mixtures, and for mineral wool materials - glue on a mineral basis. If you attach plates to an even wall, then use dowels optional - you can do only glue. However, at the corners of the house, along the perimeter of the door and window openings, it is still necessary to install ducts, as in the case of wind gusts in these places there are areas of rarefied air, the thermal insulation may simply break away from the ground. If you attach a heater over the old plaster or artistic coating, be sure to use the dowels. At least 1-5 m2 must be installed at least 4-5 pieces. Choose the length of the fasteners according to the total thickness of the heater, plaster and other layers, plus the required level of dipping the dowel in the wall. The latter factor depends on the material of the ground. For nicer concrete it is at least 5 cm, for hollow brick - 9 cm. When you attach a heater, it must be closed with a protective layer. For this, the entire surface is covered with glutinous solution and drowned in it a special reinforcing fiberglass mesh. When purchasing a grid, be careful - it should be designed for outdoor work( it has high atmospheric resistance).The task of the grid is to protect the heater from mechanical damage, preventing the formation of cracks and strengthening the rigidity of the base for applying the finish plaster. Apply the edge of the cut-out net with a patch of 10-15 cm. Pay special attention to the corners of the house - use special corner profiles in the form of fiberglass strips with plastic lining. It is also possible to use aluminum corners, then the reinforcing net has to be laid over them. When laying a grid, you will always encounter problem areas - the transitions between horizontal and vertical planes, window frames, etc. To exclude the formation of cracks in these places, stack the grid, making it slots or cuts and filling the grooves with mounting foam, orself-shrinking sealing tape. After laying the reinforcing mesh on the adhesive, it is necessary to leave the walls at rest for 2-3 days, so that the layer as it should cling and dry. The drying time depends on the weather and the level of humidity. Of course, it is better to choose a dry and hot day for work. After drying the reinforcing layer, you can begin to apply the finish plaster. Usually it is sold as a dry mixture that needs to be diluted with water. Do not cook immediately a large amount of solution, otherwise you risk not having time to spend it, especially from unusual. Depending on the weather and the composition of the mixture, the shelf life of the diluted plaster is 1.5-3 h. Apply evenly with a wide spatula or trowel, rubbing it over the entire wall of the wall in one session. This kind of work requires certain skills and skill, so if you have the opportunity, work out on imperceptible sites. To facilitate work, conditionally divide the facade into several horizontal sectors, for example, three. Then three people can simultaneously plaster the wall, and there will be no differences in the shades between the sectors due to different drying times. If, however, borders are traced between the plots made at different times, then to disguise them, use an unpigmented plasterboard, and then cover the wall with a facade paint.
Warming the walls of the building on the outside is not too difficult. The difficulty lies in choosing the appropriate materials and method of stacking. No matter what technology you have not used, remember to work on high-tech safety equipment and purchase the required protective kit.
Facades of buildings: photo