Androgenic alopecia in men - causes, symptoms, treatment
- 01 Oct 03:00
- Disease Of The Skin
Recently, men began to come across androgenetic alopecia, an hereditary baldness. To know what to treat alopecia, you need to find out the mechanisms of its occurrence.
- 1 Causes of
- 2 Development mechanism
- 3 Symptoms
- 4 Diagnostics
- 4.1 Laboratory research
- 4.2 Specialist studies
- 5 Alopecia treatment
- 5.1 Medicinal treatment
- 5.2 Treatment of folk remedies
- 6 Prevention of
Alopecia can be caused by the following seriesCauses:
- excess male hormone dihydrotestosterone;
- hypersensitivity of follicle hair to dihydrotestosterone;
- is a hyperactive 5-alpha-reductase that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone.
According to physicians, alopecia is observed in 95% of all cases of male baldness. Most often it develops near the occipital part and moves to the top, but there are other options for development.
Hippocrates has long been seen that eunuchs never bald. Significantly later Aristotle also noted this. But in the 40's of the twentieth century, Dr. D. Hamilton wrote that the cause of baldness - is excess content in the body of male sex hormones. He also assumed that this phenomenon was somehow connected with genetic predisposition.
Development Mechanism of
Today it is not clear that only some sex hormones increase or suppress hair growth. The effect of the action on the hair androgens is determined by a special receptor located on the surface of the follicle cells of the hair.
This receptor is similar to a button, and a hormone is a finger that will click on it. The result of pressing is predetermined by the mechanisms present in the follicle. For example, if you press one finger with the same type of button, then in one case there will be an explosion in Paris, and in the other - the launch of the rocket into space.
But what wires are brought to each of the buttons - this is the question. For example, estrogen helps to grow hair on the head and slow down their growth on the body and face, and androgens stimulate the growth of the mustaches and beards, but can suppress their growth on the head or some areas of the body. The point here is not so much in the hormones themselves, but in the areas of the location of the follicles.
If there are follicles with dihydrotestosterone-dependent inhibitors that inhibit the growth of the "button" on the head, then the response to the excessive amount of androgens will be hair loss. Transplanting on the head of the follicles from the area of the beard or mustache, with the same excess of androgens in the body, will already cause hair growth. Therefore, this method is used in the fight against androgenetic alopecia.
All males who suffer from alopecia have, in almost all cases, normal levels of androgens. Doctors are convinced that the main reason for a sharp loss of hair in this disease is the hyperactivity of 5-alpha reductase, or the hyperactivity of the receptors of the skin to dihydrotestosterone.
5-alpha reductase is found in the body in just three locations:
- in the prostate gland;
- hair follicles;
- in the sebaceous glands.
The main task of this enzyme is the translation of testosterone into the active phase - dihydrotestosterone. But why do follicles need a transformation from which hair begin to fall out? This is a clear biological explanation.
Human hair is a very important sexual affiliation and they are obliged to "know" what part of the body grows. It depends, of course, on who the body will belong to: a woman or a man. For example, all follicles in the chin area will respond positively to dihydrotestosterone, because the beard is an obvious sign of male.
But excessive amounts of estrogen will force the same follicles to stop hair production. Since long hair on the head is a woman's ornament, follicles on her head in her husband will be stimulated by estrogen and suppressed by androgens. In case if at least one follicle becomes sensitive to androgens, the overwhelming action may appear to be superfluous for it.
Dihydrotestosterone has a supportive effect, affecting a certain phase of hair growth, so they enter prematurely in the resting phase. Total hair follicles three phases of life cycle:
The anagen phase is characterized by a period of hair follicle production in the follicle. This stage lasts for several years, in which 85% of all follicles are located. Catagene is a time of degeneration of the follicle. Here the growth of hair does not occur, and its root becomes similar to the shape of the bulb. Catagna lasts for several weeks. The telogen phase occurs when the hair completely separates from its root and begins its movement to the surface of the skin. At this stage, only 15% of all hair is present. It is these hair that begins to fall out when washing and combing. Hair loss rate is 80 pcs a day.
The hormone dihydrotestosterone in some follicles begins to cause a reduction in one of the growth phases. Such follicles do not grow to the proper size and produce weak, thin hair. When viewed in a microscope it is visible atrophic follicles, which is a distinctive feature of androgenic alopecia.
Since the ratio in the stage of anagenesis and telogenesis is shifted towards the rest of the follicles, a number of follicles begin to appear, while simultaneously casting hair fiber. Thus, the weakening and loss of hair ends with their ultimate collapse.
There are hair follicles and another enzyme called aromatase, which converts dihydrotestosterone back into estrogens and testosterone. Aromatase reduces the level of DT in hair follicles and is the opposite of 5-alpha reductase. Only the lower part of the nape is the most resistant to baldness and it is from it and take follicles for transplantation.
Alopecia develops in several stages, which determine its degree. Usually all degrees are standard, so they are reduced to Norwood-Hamilton's table.
- 1 stage. Here you can see small bumps in the fronto-temporal areas along the front line of hair growth.
- 2 stage. Baldness takes the form of a triangle and extends deep into 2 cm.
- 3 stage. There are deeper frontal-temporal hollows.
- 3 B stage. Hair falls on the tower.
- 4 stage. There are three clear areas of bark: fronto-temporal and parietal.
- 5 stage. Eradication of borders between all areas of hair loss, hair thinning has the shape of a horseshoe.
- 6 stage. Extension of maculatus and frontal-temporal baldness zones.
- 7 stage. Baldness has a clear horseshoe shape.
Diagnosis is based on laboratory and specialist research.
At this stage, the following are investigated:
- thyroid function;
- blood test( complete);
- concentration of ferritin in blood plasma;
- Wasserman's response( syphilis exclusion);
- is the number of B- and T-lymphocytes.
Here are the following:
- stretching hair: pulling a hair rod without effort;
- microscopic study of its rod;
- peeling study with potassium hydroxide;
- study on fungi;
- biopsy, direct immunofluorescence and microscopy, which allow to determine the type and stage of alopecia.
Treatment of androgenic alopecia consists mainly of antiandrogenic therapy. It includes the treatment of both folk and medicines. Such an approach to treatment is able to stop hair loss, but does not guarantee the return of the former density.
The most effective drug - Minoxidil, manufactured under the trade names Headway, Regaine, or Rogaine. To date, Minoxidil is the only remedy that acts directly on the follicles, extending the phase of hair growth.
Prevention of alopecia is hypnotherapy, head massage, electrostimulation, and electrophoresis of Badia.
There is another promising method of treatment - the effect on the activity of 5-alpha reductase. Interestingly in this method is that all the effects given by testosterone( sexual behavior, spermatogenesis, and muscle distribution) remain intact.
Apart from the effect on 5-alpha reductase, the blockers of the androgen receptors themselves can also be used. Since these blockers have a fairly strong influence on libido, potency, spermatogenesis and breast size( gynecomastia in men), it is recommended that they take the amino acid arginine, yohimbe and other potentials stimulants.
Treatment of folk remedies
Of course, artificial inhibitors have a very strong effect on the hormonal background. That is why the unexpected finding was gamma-linolenic acid, which is synthesized from natural products. It is contained in a digger, black currant oil, evening primrose.
Avocado oil, despite the absence of gamma-linolenic acid there, is considered the best remedy. It contains oleic acid, which allows the oil to penetrate deeply into the surface of the scalp and be well distributed over it. Avocado oil is usually added to other oil compositions to improve their ability to absorb.
But in Jojoba oil, there is docosahexaenoic acid that can suppress 5-alpha reductase.
The advantage of natural oils is that they penetrate the hair through the cuticle and lipid skin barrier. Apply oils best as an additional remedy for basic treatments.
Also the most powerful antiandrogenic action is given by the extract of dwarf palms. It is able to inhibit 5-alpha reductase and block receptors to dihydrotestosterone.
There are also two substances that suppress 5-alpha reductase: zinc and vitamin B6.Zinc is a part of many ointments and nutritional supplements, and vitamin B6 is contained in a huge amount in beer yeast.
Androgens cause baldness, but estrogens stimulate hair growth. Consequently, you can use them as antiandrogenic therapy. Physicians are not strongly recommended to use synthetic estrogens as treatment, as side effects may occur( cancer, phlebitis).
It is best to use safe and natural phytoestrogens, similar in structure to human estrogens. Of course, the effect of human estrogens with phytoestrogens by force is not comparable, but natural estrogens have anticancer activity and have a beneficial effect on the skin.
Phytoestrogens are found in verbena, sage, wild yam, Damiani leaves, hops extract, red clover, soy beans, seeds and peas of grapes, sarsaparille, alfalfa. There are also phytosterols, which also have antiandrogenic effect. These include olive, sesame, coconut oil and wheat germ oil. These oils are taken internally or cooked on their basis for a hair washing composition.
When using all the means, you need to prepare for the fact that the treatment of baldness will be prolonged. The first results will only be visible in a few months.
If alopecia is genetic, then the following person should be observed:
- do not use a hair dryer;
- to wash hair with qualitative means;
- , the temperature of water during washing should be no more than 40 ° C;
- never comb hair immediately after washing;
- at least half the total diet should consist of vegetables or fruits;
- try to use proteins: they contain amino acids that help the hair to be strong and soft;
- to minimize the use of sweets, fats, smoked foods, saltines, preservatives and alcohol;
- to avoid stress;
- annually visit the trichologist and dermatologist.
For androgenic alopecia it is characterized that it can not cure, but progress. When all methods are tested, doctors resort to surgical treatment. Non-surgical techniques that use donor hair are usually ineffective, as demonstrated by many years of practice.