When managing a child in the first class, parents always dream that their child will be excellent at studying and receive only higher grades for all subjects. And if reading a child is not difficult at all, then it is not always easy to understand and solve mathematical problems for children. In order for
first-graders to do math at school, parents or hire a tutor who is not always financially justified, or try to engage with the children on their own. In this material, we will describe how to raise the first-graders in mathematics at home, tell about different types of tasks and methods of their solutions.
Table of Contents
1. How to teach an
mathematical account student 2. Adding tasks for first-graders
3. Subordinate assignments for first-graders
4. Comparison tasks for first-graders
5. Task for logic for first-graders
6. Instead of finding
How to teachThe child of the mathematical account
Parents of first-graders should remember that at the age of 5-7 children have poorly developed abstract thinking. Remember the tale of Pinocchio when he considered the apples allegedly taken "Someone".So a 5-7 year old child is not yet able to imagine the condition of the task.
It is best to use visual aids that a child can see, feel. These can be counting sticks, cubes or pictures cut from cardboard( for example, a set of cardboard hedgehogs, flowers, leaves, etc.).
Teach your child the whole condition of the task of visual materials: there were so many, added or taken away so much. So it will be easier for him to understand the condition of the task and easier to find its solution.
Another important point in teaching children is that the child must learn how to distinguish tasks from each other by type. To do this, you can target it to some keywords. For example, if the task mentioned words , "brought" , "arrived ", "ran" and others signifying the accession, then this is an addition task.
Understanding what kind of task a task belongs to, the child will learn how to determine the desired solution algorithm and successfully deal with the task.
Add-ons for first-graders
As already mentioned, tasks for assembly have a common feature - joining. Another sign of the task of assembling is the phrase "how many things" in the question task.
The child must learn to clearly understand that if there is an affiliation to something, then he needs to make available figures. The child should understand what the first term is, the second term and the sum, and be able to find them in the terms of the task.
In order for a child to have a well-developed oral account, he must regularly engage in a "in-person" account. If you are on vacation, at least once a day, ask him examples for the development of memory. You can even go on the road to school or in the section.
Five to ten examples every day do not tire the first-graders too much, but they will bring a lot of benefits for further education.
The following is a task for first-graders to add. For convenience, we split them into variants so that when you are at home, you could solve the tasks already completed with your child.
Option 1 Natasha read 5 books for the holidays, and Katya read 4 books. How many books have children read together during the holidays? On one branch of apple 6 apples hung, and on the other - 7. How many apples were on both branches of apple? In the classroom there are flowers in the pots. On the first window there are 2 flowers, on the second 3 flowers, and on the third 1 flower. How many flowers in the classroom? In the family of Alyosha lives 2 boys and 1 girl. In the Tanya family - 1 girl and 1 boy. Sergey lives in the family of 2 boys, and in Kati - only 1 girl. How many girls live in the families of children? How many boys? According to the results of 1 quarters in the 1-A class, 10 excellent students, 14 goodies and 2 triennials. In the 1-B class - 8 distinguished students, 12 goodmen and 3 triennials. And in the 1-U - 11 honors, 11 goodmen and 4 chemist. How many honors, goodies and trivians in the whole parallel of the first classes?
Variant 2 Natasha 8 years old how much will she be in 3 years? After 4 years, 10 years later? In the office of Nastia, liked the markers for 18 rubles. She has 10 rubles, 5 rubles, 2 rubles and 1 ruble. Enough girl to buy money? 6 girls and 12 boys came out for a walk. How many children went out for a walk? In Sasha a pack of checking sticks. Of these, 10 red, 8 blue and 12 yellow. How many sticks are in a bundle? 4 friends and 5 friends came to Pauline's birthday. How many children will sit at the festive table?(here it is important that the child did not forget to count Polina himself, the answer in the task - 10 children).
Variant 3 The children came to the park and saw birds sailing on the lake: 8 swans and 12 ducks. How many birds floated on the lake? On Saturday school children were planting seedlings. Petrik planted 2 seedlings, Anton - 3, Natasha with Katyu 2 seedlings. How many seedlings were planted by children? In the box, candy was lying on the table. Masha ate 5 sweets, Alyona - 3 candies, Nastya - 6 sweets, and Mikolka has eaten 6 sweets and the box is empty. How many candies have been in the box since the beginning? In the collection of Marina 20 postcards. Yulia also has 20 postcards. How many cards are there for girls? There were 20 brands in Sevi, and 4 more brands were presented to him. How many brands have been in Sevi?
Variant 4 In the 1-A class, 13 boys and 12 girls. In the 1-B class there are 12 boys and 15 girls, and in the 1-B class there are 10 boys and 12 girls. How many boys and how many girls are in all the first grades? Mum planted 20 bushs of cucumbers and 17 bush tomatoes. How many bush plants were planted by my mother? On Monday, 8 tables were brought to the dining room; on Tuesday - 7 tables, and on Thursday - 10 more. How many tables did the dining room receive in a week? Pasha and Dad went on a hike. On the first day they were 12 km. In the second one - 10 km, in the third - 8, and in the fourth 11. Which way did the father and Pasha overcome? There are 12 monkeys, 8 tigers, 2 elephants, 6 bears and 4 raccoons in the zoo. How many animals are in the zoo?
Important! If each day solves one option of tasks to add to the child, then on the control it will show brilliant results.
Subordinate tasks for first-graders
Subjective tasks also have their own characteristics and features. In a condition you can always find some of the typical phrases: "how much left" , "there was so much. .." , "there was so much, so much went / flew away / fled / spoiled, etc." and others.
It is also important here to understand that this is the first term, the second term, and the sum, to be able to find them in the terms of the task, since subtraction tasks are inverse of addition. And the concept here is a bit different: diminished, negative, difference.
Below are the tasks for the first-graders to subtract. For convenience, we also broke them into options so that when performing homework, children could solve already completed tasks.
There is a task to find the balance( "how much left"), and to reduce( "how much has changed the number").
Option1 Andrew lives on the 7th floor, and Elena is 3 floors below. On what floor lives Helen? In Volodya, there are 17 cars, and in Sasha there is not one. Volodya presented 8 cars to Sasha. How much has he left? Natasha is 12 years old, and her brother Sergius is 7 years younger. How old is Sergius? There were 10 apples in the garden, and 4 pears in the garden. How many pears grew in the garden? For the first day of the month, Mila read 24 pages in the book, and the second one in 3 less. How many pages did Mila read on the second day?
Option 2 Children in the school library receive books. Petya took 8 books, Alyosha - 2 books less than Petya, and Vanya 3 books more than Alyosha. How many books did each boy take? How many books did they take together? 25 berries lying on the table. Marina ate 4 berries, Alice ate 6 berries, Mila ate 3 berries, and the rest of the berries milked Katya. How many berries did Marina and Alice eat? Mila and KatyaHow much berries did Katya eat? There were 10 plates on the table, and 6 in the sink. How many plates were in the sink? Sergey 15 years old, his sister Larissa is 4 years younger. And Boris's youngest brother - 7 years less than Larissa. How old is Larissa and Boris? Mum planted 30 bush cucumbers, 17 bushes descended. How many cucumber bushes disappeared?
Option 3 Children went to the forest for mushrooms. Dima found 10 cheesecakes and 7 white mushrooms. Tanya found 3 crumbs less, and 2 whites less. How many and what mushrooms has Tanya found? In the first building of 12 entrances, in the second house at 4 entrances is less than in the first. And in the third house at 6 entrances less than in the first. How many entrances in each of the buildings? In the first basket of 23 apples, and in the second on 11 apples less. How many apples are in both baskets? 12 girls participated in the show, and 3 boys were less than boys. How many boys took part in the show? In one weighs 15 roses, and the other is 8 less. How many roses are in the second weight?
Option 4 Candy stood at 30 rubles, and bread at 15 rubles is cheaper. How much does bread cost? My grandmother cooked the cakes. With potatoes 30 pieces, with jam for 10 less than with potatoes, with cabbage for 5 less than with potatoes. How many and what pies were my grandmother? There were 20 men on the bus. Women were 5 less than men, and children - 7 less than women. How many people were riding a bus? Children in the school library receive books. Sasha took 5 books, Misha - 2 books less than Sasha, and Sergey 2 books more than Misha. How many books did each boy take? How many books did they take together? 20 water bubbles were spent on watering the city. On the beds with cabbage went 12 buckets. How much went to the beds with carrots?
Comparison tasks for first-graders
Comparison tasks are aimed at finding a number smaller or larger than the original. In principle, to some extent, they can be attributed to the tasks of adding or subtracting, so we decided to not assign these tasks to variants, but to give a few examples: There were 10 cats on the roof: 7 black and 3 gray. How many black cats are more than gray? In the village, grandmothers have chickens and ducks. Chickens 18, and ducks - 15. How many chickens more than ducks. A Tani 3 dolls, and Dini - 4 more. How many puppies are in Dini? How many dolls in Tanya are less? Marina is 14 years old, and Misha 9. How old is Marina older than Misha? There are 8 cars in the garage. Of these, 3 trucks and 5 cars. How much trucks are less than cars? gave birthday gifts to Dima. First, my mom and dad gave me 2 presents, then my friends brought 5 gifts. How many gifts did Dima have? On the first day of the vacation Yura decided 5 tasks, the second - 7, and the third - 2. How many more tasks decided on Jura on the second day? How many tasks did Yuri decide on less than the first day on the third day? And how much less tasks he decided on the third day than in the second? In Sonia there were 3 oranges and 10 apples. How much apples are more than oranges? In Oli 3 rabbits and 2 proteins. Mila has 5 dolls and 1 mouse. Who has more toys and how many? Cows graze on the meadow. To them came 7 goats and all became 15 animals in the meadow. How many cows did you have?
Logic Problems for First-graders
For Development of Logical Thinking, we have already devoted several articles to the recommendations of educators and lists of exercises and tasks. Here we give a few logical tasks that will allow not only to develop, but also to train the logic of first-graders. What's easier? Kilogram of cotton wool or kilogram of nails? In a glass, cup and cup poured tea, compote and cocoa. The mug is not cocoa. In the cup is not cocoa, and no compote. What and what poured? How many fingers on 3 hands How many paws does 4 cats have? How many hands do you have in 10 children? Lena and Misha saw 2 steamships in the sea. How many steamboats saw each of the children? Kitty tails from behind the bed. How many kittens, if you see 7 tails? Dogs hid behind the fence. From under the tin is seen 12 paws, how many all the dogs behind the fence? On the table there are 5 peaches and 8 pears. How much will all apples and plums be? 2 cups of milk are on the table. Petya drank milk and put her hand on the table. How many glasses are on the table? Vanya came out of school. To meet him were 3 girls. How many children went from school? Seven first-graders from the house went to school: Petya, Masha, Lisa, Grisha, Tolya, Misha and Larisa, and 4 second-graders: Sergey, Tanya, Mila and Vanya. How many girls went to school? To get into the theater 2 daughters and 2 mothers needed 3 tickets. How could this happen? Misha is older than Helen for 2 years. How much will he be older than Lena after 5 years? Olena and Milan were planted for 10 flowers and finished their work at the same time. Milan started work earlier. Which of the girls worked slower?
Instead of Conclusion
Mathematical development of first-graders is of great importance in their education. By solving examples and tasks, the child acquires new experience, knowledge and skills. Learn logically and mathematically to think, find solutions from different situations, more successfully master the related sciences in further education.
It is not possible to allow children to succeed, and they must all endeavor to help them in this difficult business, like learning in the first class. It is precisely at this time that the foundation for his further study at the school is laid.