A memorial to the parents of future first-graders booklet
- 24 Sep 20:00
When a child reaches the age of 6-7, parents have a lot of questions regarding preparation for school. After all, just buy a hanger, a form and other school supplies - this is far from all that is necessary for a successful child's education. What needs to pay attention to?
1.Readiness of parents
2. Physical readiness of child
3. Child's attitude to oneself. Self-esteem
4. Intellectual training for the school
4.1.General awareness of
4.2.Ability to navigate in time and space
4.3.Development of memory
4.4.Development of Thinking
4.5.Development of the attention of
4.7.The development of the
imagination 5. Summing up the results
The willingness of parents
Psychologists say that the success of adaptation of the first-graders and their subsequent education at school is largely influenced by the readiness of the parents and their psychological mood.
Negative result entails excessive anxiety of adults, and their indifference to the new stage of the child's life.
Of course, the organizational moment is important. Acquiring school supplies, textbooks, uniforms, and armpits is not only troublesome but also enjoyable. If the child takes this direct part, then the positive mood for the school is provided. It is known that many preschoolers as the motivation behind the external side of school education.
Equally important, the health and safety of the future first-graders is equally important. To do this, take care of the following:
- Day mode. After starting school, it will be different from what the child is used to in a preschool institution. Must necessarily include his outdoor walks. Homework should be done in the afternoon, not in the evening( preferably 15-16 hours).Then the child will have time to rest from school, however, there will not be evening fatigue.
- First Grade Safety. The first months of a child's education will need to be taken and taken away from school. Therefore, many parents are beginning to rebuild their work schedule in advance to be able to do so. You should not forget about street safety conversations, traffic rules that you constantly need to remind your child, even if it is with an adult.
- Learning to self-esteem. One of the main mistakes of many parents is the performance of homework for a child. Most mothers and dads want their baby to be best educated. Therefore, they try to help him make the task perfect, and in the end simply perform it for yourself. The result is the absolutely opposite effect - a child can not perform work in a class, respectively, brings not at all the assessments that are expected by adults. Psychologists and educators recommend that adults only monitor the execution of tasks, giving tips only in extreme cases( if the student for some reason did not learn the subject at a lesson).
Physical fitness of the child
Physiological readiness for the school is an important component of the overall development of the child. This parameter is evaluated by pediatricians who look at several criteria:
- Biological Age. Specialists pay attention to the proportions of the body, which must meet age standards, the number of radical teeth appeared, etc.
- Physical development. The body weight, growth, and circumference of the chest are taken into account.
- General health condition. Pediatricians conventionally divide children into five groups. This is necessary for appropriate recommendations for further education, since there are children who may have difficulty attending a mass school due to health problems.
The future first-year student is expected to change the mode of the day, a significant increase in mental load, the establishment of new relationships with teachers and peers. All this leads to the strain of the functional system of the child's body, therefore, affects his health.
For successful adaptation, it is recommended that you start a physical training less than a year before entering school. This is especially true for children who do not attend pre-school educational institutions.
The child's attitude to himself. Self-assessment
Self-assessment is an important component of the personality, formed directly in preschool age. It consists of the following components:
The emotional component prevails in a senior preschooler. In other words, self-esteem is formed under the influence of the ratio of adults to the child and his position in the group of peers.
Any product of the baby's activity is inextricably linked with his personality. If an adult expresses a negative opinion about the drawing, then the child passes a negative assessment on himself.
In cases where parents or other members constantly criticize the preschooler and his work( albeit grounded), there is a high risk of forming a lower self-esteem. As a result, the child has such features as insecurity, isolation.
Avoid issues with self-esteem, following the following recommendations:
Adults are advised to refrain from categorical statements( "Mom knows better", "Daddy is not mistaken", etc.).Much more effective in such cases is the method of persuasion with the argumentation of the statement.
Undervalued self-esteem often leads to problems of adapting first-graders to a new team. Such children can get the social status of "rejected" or "isolated".In the preschool age, parents can still adjust self-esteem. If you find problems in the first class, it is advisable to contact a school psychologist who will help to correct the situation.
Intelligent School Preparation
Several factors are involved in the intellectual readiness of the school. Ideally, the child who came to the first class must have the following characteristics:
- Must have a stock of knowledge about the surrounding world;
- A good orientation in time and space;
- Be able to compare groups of subjects, to distinguish essential and non-essential features;
- Be able to compose simple texts of an image and a group of pictures;
- Understand and perform verbal instructions;
- Have mature fine motility( ability to hold a pencil, have simple drawing skills);
- Have a steady, random attention.
General awareness of
By the age of 6-7, the child must already have a fairly broad knowledge of the surrounding world.
Preschooler should know:
- its full name;
- home address, city and country in which it lives;
- Basic Road Traffic Rules;
- family members, their names, occupation;
- main colors and shades;
- during the year, their features;
In addition, the child must have a direct and a reciprocal account within 10, able to compare the numbers, solve simple tasks( "more on. ..", "less on. ..").The preschooler must be formed by the concept of sets, shapes and sizes, and magnitude.
Ability to navigate in time and space
Time and space are specific concepts that are most difficult to learn by preschoolers. This is due to the fact that they are not material and children can not "see" them. Therefore, in class with future first-graders, special attention should be paid to spatial orientation. Before schooling, the child must:
- know the seasons, their features;
- be able to call months of the year;
- to orient in days, weeks, parts of the days;
- know the concept of "left" - "right";
- be able to determine the location of an object( above, before, behind, near, between, etc.).
To form the timing concepts , you should include the following questions and tasks in the class:
The use of proverbs, poems, riddles about the temporary categories contributes to the better assimilation of these concepts.
For the study of spatial landmarks, different illustrations should be considered. Adult can ask a child questions such as "Where is this or that subject?", "What's next to. ..?", Etc. To this end, effectively use the exercise "Christmas tree".Preschoolers are invited to draw a tree in the middle of the sheet. After he does this, the adult asks to draw a mushroom under the fir tree, the sun - the sun, next to the bunny, and others.
Graphic dictations are offered to children for the development of spatial representations. They are executed on sheets in a cell, where it is necessary to make a pattern on a prompt. Adult then gives instructions: one cell to the right, two up, one to the left, etc.
The involuntary memory in the preschooler is normally developed to a sufficient degree. In other words, what he is interested in or causes some emotions, he quickly memorizes. A child of 5-6 years is just beginning to form an arbitrary memory. This type of mental process involves making efforts to memorize any material. In school, no doubt, the teacher will rely on arbitrary actions.
In the future first-graders, the is dominated by the visual memory( based on illustrations and visual material) and only verbal-logical is beginning to form. In order to determine the level of development of the cognitive process, you can use the exercise "Reproduction of pictures."
The child shows 5-6 pictures per sheet for a few seconds. Then the sheet is removed, and the baby is asked to name the objects that he remembered. Children with well-developed memory call all subjects( 1 error is allowed).
Psychologists recommend "What's changed" game. Within 10 seconds, the preschooler looks at the placed toys, then turns away. Adult changes the location of some items, and the child should name what changes have occurred.
Development of Thinking
The development of logical thinking will help your child to be successful in schooling. The future first-year student must have the following skills:
- Be able to analyze;
- Perform comparisons;
- Set the patterns;
- Detect cause-and-effect relationships;
- Summarize items by certain attributes.
When entering school, the child should know the following groups of subjects: "fruits", "vegetables", "furniture", "dishes", "transport"( to differentiate air, ground, water), etc.
For the development of logical thinking use Exercise Excessive exercises( the child should argue the choice), "Names in a word," "What was before," and others.
Development of attention
Attention, as well as memory, pre-schooler predominates involuntary. Children are interested only in objects that seem to them seemingly attractive or for some other reason they are interested.
For the formation of arbitrary attention from future first-graders, psychologists recommend more often to suggest to babies to think out loud.
For the development of attention, the game "Edible-inedible", "We were at the zoo", etc., familiar to everyone from the childhood, were used. The lessons use the task "Find differences between pictures," "Find a couple of identical images."
Language is very important in the overall development of the child. Badly speaking, children tend to become shy and locked up. They are passive in lessons and rarely participate in the social life of the school. In addition, the wrong pronunciation in oral speech and insufficiently formed phonemic rumor lead to errors in the letter.
A child entering the first class must know and be able to follow the following.
- Clearly pronounce all sounds of the language, do not make mistakes when discussing complex words( illustration, designer, etc.) and suggestions.
- To hear and differentiate sounds, to distinguish where the sound is in the word( in the beginning, inside, at the end).
- Share words in stock.
- Correctly change the form of the word and form new lexical units. For example, "juice from apples" - "apple juice", "jam from strawberries" - "strawberry jam".To name objects of diminutive-petty( mushroom-mushroom, bush-bush).
- Call actions, pick antonyms( wide-narrow, high-low), and synonyms.
- Compose a detailed story for an illustration or a group of pictures.
- Explain the meaning of a particular word.
The development of speech can be stimulated not only with special tasks, but also in daily communication with the child. Effective in this direction is the use of exercises "Through the story" and similar. In preschool age, great attention should be paid to reading books for kids. This occupation should take from 30 minutes per day to .
Development of the Imagination
For the development of the child's imagination, practical experience and understanding of the reality are needed. For example, in preschool children games, verbal instructions are often given. In this case, the child will conquer them their actions, do something purposefully. Presented images of preschoolers should somehow express: to sculpt, draw, speak, etc.
Imagination should not be considered as a normal fantasy. It should be aimed at creating a product of activity: drawing, articles, history.
When developing the imagination it is necessary to focus on the fact that it should be a kind of reflection of the surrounding reality. Classroom creativity is the most important and indispensable element of general preparation for school. Lessons on the development of the imagination should include exercises "Stores of the fairy tale", "What would it be if. .." and similar.
Any kindergarten sessions should be conducted in a gaming form, as the game itself is the predominant form of activity at that age. In no case can we force the child to study, which will lead to a negative attitude to learning and to the school itself.
You should not put too much promise on a child "you must be an excellent student", "study only 5", etc. If the first-graders can not meet these requirements of parents, then he becomes anxious, closed, painful. Adults must understand themselves and explain to the child that an assessment is not always a perfect assessment system. And even if he did not get what he was expecting, the next time he'll have to do better.
Many parents are very worried when their child is going to first grade. In such cases it is necessary to remember that children "read" the state of adults.
Excessive anxiety can be transmitted to the child, resulting in a complicated adaptation period that will be complicated by additional problems. Therefore, parents need to breathe deeply and watch calmly how their baby makes her first step in adulthood.