How to teach a child to count in the mind
- 01 Sep 23:45
If a student in a school is "not given" mathematics, then the problem should be looked at in his first steps in studying the numbers. That's the answer to the question of how to teach a child to count on the mind, authors of early development techniques and ordinary teachers. Schoolchildren who have not mastered the oral account,can not solve even the simplest tasks in physics and chemistry. Controls in mathematics and EDI cause them stress. Let's try to figure out how to teach a preschooler an oral account necessary for studying mathematics, physics, chemistry and just for life in our complex world.
1. From what age to teach a kid to count?
2. How to deal with children of all ages?
3. Developing games and tasks for the oral account
4. Recommendations for parents
From what age to teach a toddler to count?
Leading educators and talented early childhood enthusiasts offer a variety of training techniques in mind. General in these guidelines is the stage-by-stage development of
Authors of early child development methods recommend that they teach him before entering the first class account in the mind and performing the examples in one action.
Parents' friends, discussing the subject, oral account and the readiness of children to school can be understood. How to teach a child to think in a mind if modern preschoolers and first-graders do not understand the importance of this skill. Why, since there are calculators? !So children and some parents argue. As a result, the guys can easily master games on their mobile phone and computer, but they are hard to believe in the mind.
Poet N. Zabolotsky wrote that "the soul is obliged to work".The same words refer to the human brain, even the smallest one. Oral account - better training of mental abilities. Early childhood is the optimal age for learning.
Interesting exercises for oral education can be offered to children at the age of one year. Although there are many parents who believe that a child under the age of 5 can not cope with similar tasks. The opinion of experts is as follows: the ability to count in the mind should be purposefully formed and developed. Apply to the oral account of children, as a mathematical lesson? Yes, but at the same time not for a moment do not forget that gaming activity - leading during preschool childhood.
How to deal with children of all ages?
Up to 1 year of age
Parents are primarily interested in how to teach a child how to calculate the age at which to start learning, how to do it right. Many will be surprised that the first lessons are simple games with the baby, for example, "Soroka-voron" , "Fingers Walk" .Such exercises develop the imaginative thinking of the child, helping the first perception of the number of objects.
The older the child becomes, the more effort is required from parents and caregivers. A child of two or three years loves to play with a pyramid, with pleasure builds a tower of cubes? He needs to explain that first we put the ring on the rod, then add to it the second, third, and so on. Such games stimulate the inquisitive child's desire to count everything, as did a cute kid in a good Soviet cartoon: "About a goat who could count up to 10".
It happens that a child already in two or three years knows the numbers, lists steps on the stairs, plates and spoons on the dining table, coins. Such "mathematical" enthusiasm appears not by accident. Only with the support and encouragement of parents, the baby begins to feel interest in the oral account, rejoices in success when he is able to correctly answer the questions of mother or father.
Developing Cartoons "BebiEnshtejn - The First Numbers"
and "Little Genius"
will help children to better learn the score within the limits of 5 and 10.
4-5 years old
Mechanical digging is not the most important achievement. It is much more useful to introduce a child with the composition of the number and concepts of "less" , "more" , "evenly" .Classes are conducted with toys and other objects of different sizes. The ability to compare will help your child learn more quickly in his mind. To study the composition of numbers you can use a bright "cash desk" or a card, educational methods of decomposition of numbers.
A five-year-old preschooler can freely perform simple arithmetic operations with counting sticks, but how to teach a child to count in mind? No worries, if for some time the kid will continue to use objects, own fingers. So I recommend school psychologists. Children gradually learn how to bend their fingers and translate objects when they think in the mind.
Author of one of the methods of early development of children S. N. Poljak does not recommend from the very beginning to study count with fingers or sticks. The child easily learns this way, but it will be difficult to get rid of it. At the account with the help of fingers is not involved mechanism for memorizing the results.
Numerous visualization and assimilation of representations of a numerical series will help N. Zaitsev's cards and tables. They give an opportunity to diversify the classes with the child, to conduct them in a game form. Duration of the session with the child - 15 minutes .Preschoolers are offered cards with figures and the same number of objects to facilitate visualization.
The hardest thing for preschoolers to understand is what is a "stock number".Help shape the presentation of toys and training manuals offered by the authors of early childhood education. Visual examples will allow a child to better understand that 5 is 1 + 4, 2 + 3, 3 + 2, 4 + 1. Have you changed the number of places? Yes, but the amount has not changed, - the child is surprised.
An important milestone occurs when the baby learns to form within the mind within ten. To go beyond these limits is to decide on parents.
It is difficult to overestimate the value of these first exercises for further study at the school of mathematics, geography, physics. Perhaps the six-year-olds do not think about it yet, it is more important for them to prepare their children for school so that the child's ability to count was helpful to him at the first stage of study.
Developmental Games and Tasks for Learning
A set can be purchased at the toy or stationery store. Total cubes of 108 pieces. Each box contains 36 cubes. In addition, you need cards with numbers from 1 to 5. Use a box with drawn empty cells for cubes that will be considered a child. Cubes and numerals will help the baby identify actions with numbers.
Course of the game:
It is necessary to agree with the child that the dice will be "dwarfs", the box will become a "home", a cell - a "room".The lesson provides visibility - the main condition for a successful account in the mind. Cubes will help the child to learn the score by scores, learn to put together and subtract.
Course of the game:
Play and learn oral accounts - it's easy!
A child aged 5-6 years and older can practice mathematical actions, making coins of various dignity. Exercises, games, tasks, there are many, only parents need to show interest in their selection. It should also be remembered that the baby should be taught purposefully to calculate in the mind. As the Italian teacher M. Montessori noted in his time, if the child does not do anything, then he does not know how to do it.
The authors of the proposed video to the words of Montessori still add an important remark to the question of how to teach a child to figure out in his mind. Mother to be interested! Parents will have to include fantasy, fountain ideas, so that the child saw the enthusiasm of an adult, he himself stretched to study the numbers and mastering the oral account.
A grown-up adult can offer the child to count pigeons who scavenge in search of crumbs on a playground, cars standing next to the entrance to the house. A child aged 5-6 will be interested in compiling numbers in machines numbers, for example, "215" - this is 2 + 1 + 5.
The training process is diversified at home through the use of board games. Match virtual money "Monopoly".Often, cups, containers, plastic disposable utensils are used for training oral accounts.
Recommendations for Parents
Children 7-8 years are considered in the column, later mastering the compilation of equations and proportions. Students come to these important skills gradually, having mastered simple methods of account. The most simple - on the fingers - is available for kids 3-4 years. Older guys use classical counting sticks, bills, elementary school students - squares with numbers from 1 to 100. Adults introduce children in different ways, so that they have the opportunity to choose the most comfortable.
Before the systematic training of the child is made up and subtracted, parents offer him, count five fingers during bathing, five toys on the shelf. It is not recommended to use such objects for purposeful training in assemblage and subtraction, it is better to choose homogeneous subjects.
The child's motor reactions change in the minds of the various stages of learning:
The child's linguistic behavior also changes with the development of an oral account:
Parents should be aware of the problems that make learning accounts in the mind:
- is a serious disease;
- is unwilling to set logical chains due to age features;
- insufficient development of mental processes( perception, memory, thinking);lack of self-control.
Parents should seek advice from psychologists and neuropsychologists in difficulty with the formation of attention and support in a child with symptoms of ADHD.
If a junior student has problems with maths at school, then parents come to the rescue first. It is necessary to show what to consider is fascinating and pleasant. Such interesting exercises will bring pleasure and interest, and with it will be formed the ability to perform mathematical actions in the mind.
Summarize. The child as a result of correct oral education:
- finds one item and many among toys, stationery;
- correctly uses the term "more", "less", "equally";
- names the numbers from 1 to 10;
- applies a quantitative and ordinal account( one, two, three - the first, second, third, etc.);
- solves simple arithmetic problems in addition and subtraction in several ways;
- correlates the number of objects with numbers.
The above skills develop memory, intelligence, shape a character rice, called "smartness" in everyday life. These are the very qualities of personality that are vital to successful socialization, mastery of the profession and movement on the career ladder. The wisdom, facilitates studying at school, also develops at an early age thanks to oral accounts.
To help parents who choose to use the prepared technique N. Zaitsev and S. Polyakova, we suggest to watch the video