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Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment

Content

  • causes of hydrocephalus
  • Types of hydrocephalus brain
  • symptoms of hydrocephalus
  • diagnosis of hydrocephalus
  • Treatments hydrocephalus

disease characterized by large amounts of cerebrospinal

fluid( CSF) in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space of the brain, called hydrocephalus. Vascular plexus of the ventricles of the brain produces liver, which moves between them, falls into the subarachnoid space of the brain( the head and dorsal), and then is absorbed back into the bloodstream.

Violation of the functioning of any part of the liquor-producing system leads to fluid retention and development of the vesicles of the brain, untimely diagnosis and treatment of which can lead to fatal outcome due to damage to the brain tissue. These statistics indicate that hydrocephalus is more often congenital, but under certain circumstances, a person of any age may become ill with this formidable disease.

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Hydrocephalic syndrome( cerebrospinal fluid)

Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment
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Causes of cerebrospinal fluid development

The development of hydrocephalus in children and adults has been triggered for various reasons.

Factors that trigger the disease in the fetal period of the

Due to modern research, the presence of fetal hydrocephalus in the second to third trimester can be detected. The causes of the disease in the fetus can be:

  • various infections( toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus or herpes infections);
  • anomalies of CNS development,
  • genetic pathology.

In order to avoid the development of fetal hydrocephalus during pregnancy planning, it is necessary to undergo all necessary examinations and to cure chronic infections that can become the cause of the disease in the future baby. During pregnancy, it is not necessary to avoid planned ultrasound examinations, they will not harm, but will help to detect deviations from the norm in a timely manner.

Causes of Congenital Hydrocephaly

According to statistics, brain hydrocephalus is found in every five hundred infants, accounting for 0.2% of all newborns. The cause of the disease may be:

• abnormalities and abnormalities of the development of the spinal cord and brain formed in the fetal period;
• infectious diseases transmitted by the expectant mother during pregnancy;
• generic trauma associated with haemorrhage in the subarachnoid space or ventricular system of the brain, complicated by the development of meningitis( most commonly, such pathologies occur in preterm infants);
• tumors of the spinal cord and brain( both malignant and benign neoplasms);
• diseases and abnormalities of the development of brain vessels.

Causes of vodia in children older than 1 year of age and older

The following causes of the development of hydrocephalus in children and adults are distinguished:

• benign or malignant tumors of the spinal cord and brain;
• inflammatory processes in the brain( encephalitis, meningitis);
• severe infectious diseases( tuberculosis);
• flaws and anomalies of the development of the structures and vascular system of the brain;
• hemorrhages in the ventricles and subarachnoid space;
• damage to brain tissues by parasites;
• Craniocerebral trauma;
• genetic abnormalities.

Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment

With timely and adequate treatment, you can ensure that the disease goes into a compensated stage.

Types of hydrocephaly of the brain

The classification of the disease is carried out in several parameters - at the place of accumulation of liquor, according to the time of occurrence, according to the stages of development, in the form of violation of the circulation of the spinal fluid( pathogenesis), the rate of flow and the pressure of the fluid.

At the time of occurrence, one can distinguish the primary( congenital) and secondary( acquired) forms of the disease. By the level of pressure of the liquid, the following types of hydrophobia are distinguished - hypertensive( with high pressure), hypotensive( with lowered) and normotensive.

The following types of vesicles are distinguished at the place of accumulation of liver:

  • Internal - Liver tissue is accumulated in the ventricles of the brain.
  • External - excess fluid volume is delayed in subarachnoid space.
  • General - Delirium of the cerebrospinal fluid at the same time in the ventricles and in the subarachnoid subarachnoid space
  • During developmental stages it is possible to speak of the following forms of acquired hydrocephalus:

  • Progressive or decompensated is a disease in an active stage characterized by increased liver pressure and pronounced symptomatology
  • Compensated - intracranial pressure is normal, but the ventricles of the brain are expanded.
  • Sub-compensated - intracranial pressure is normal, but there is a risk of developing
  • Atrophic - the ventricles of the brain and subarachnoid space are enlarged in size, and in the brain tissues begin to develop atrophic processes.
  • According to the pathogenesis of , hydrocephalus can be divided into the following types:

  • Open( internal) or occlusive - the cause of its development is a violationfree circulation of liver and its delay in one two or all four ventricles. It can be solved only by surgical removal of an obstacle to passage of spinal fluid.
  • Closed( external) or dysresorbent - develops due to violation of the ways of absorption of fluid in the bloodstream.
  • Hypersecretory( mixed) - develops as a result of increased production of spin liquids.
  • Depending on the rate of flow of , three forms of hydrocephalus can be distinguished:

  • Acute - 2-3 days from the moment the first symptoms appear to the development of a severe decompensated form.
  • Subacute or progressiveness - the duration of the disease reaches 30 days.
  • Chronic - can last from three weeks to six months.
  • Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment

    Diseases in a compensated form do not pose a threat to life.

    Symptoms of the cerebrospinal fluid

    Clinical signs of the disease depend on the age of the patient.

    Signs of Congenital Hydrocephalus in Newborns and Children by the Year

    The main symptom of the development of the disease in the infant is the increase in the volume of the skull, depending on the severity of the disease. Other symptoms of cold sore throat in children up to the year may be:

    • periodic throw of the head back,
    • swelling and pulsation of the source,
    • appearance of tremor and convulsive syndrome,
    • displacement of one or both eyes,
    • is too pale skin.

    The child is sluggish, poorly eating, it is capricious and irritating, there may be slowed collapse of the skull bones. Hydrocephalus, found at an early age, is better treated.

    For early diagnostics of the vesicle of the brain, it is necessary to visit the pediatrician every month and measure the circumference of the baby's head, normally increasing its size should correspond to the schedule.

    Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment

    With timely detection and adequate treatment, transferring the disease into a compensated form can be done in 80 children with hydrocephalus from 100.

    Symptoms of adult hydrocephalus

    Clinical manifestations of acute and chronic forms of the disease vary considerably.

    In acute cerebrospinal fluid , symptoms are due to an increase in intracranial pressure and is manifested by the following symptoms:

    • headaches are sharp in the morning and gradually decreased to the evening due to increased pressure during sleep;
    • nausea and morning appetite for vomiting, after which the intensity of headaches decreases;
    • disturbances of visual functions due to developing optic disc stagnation;
    • the appearance of drowsiness suggests the approach of a sharp deterioration of the patient's condition;
    • suppresses the patient's consciousness up to the development of a coma, the position of the head at the same time non-esteem and there are oculomotor disorders.

    The chronic form of the disease, , is manifested by the following clinical features:

  • Dementia syndrome - the patient experiences sleepiness in the daytime, and at night can not sleep, his overall activity is significantly reduced, memory impairment develops, and in later stages he may become completelyinadequate
  • Apraksiya Walk is a syndrome in which a patient lying can simulate movement while walking, and rising, moves uncertainly, swaying and wide-spreading legs.
  • In the later stages of development, urinary incontinence occurs.
  • Diagnosis of hydrocephalus

    The diagnosis of hydrocephalus can be done by the physician based on clinical manifestations of the disease, history, fundus examination and results of additional studies such as:

    • neurosonography - ultrasound examination of the brain and liquor-conducting system through thin areas of the child's skull bones, used in children before2 years;
    • computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging - gives an accurate diagnostic picture of brain structures and defines all the anomalies of the structure.
    • angiography determines the disruption of the vessel structure.

    Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment

    Only by identifying the exact diagnosis can begin treatment of the disease.

    Treatment methods for hydrocephalus

    The choice of methods for treating the disease depends on the form of the disease, the severity of its clinical manifestations and the patient's health. Eliminating the cause of the disease can only be by surgical methods, and conservative therapy can stabilize the disease and is used in the initial stages.

    Conservative treatment for

    For the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid, the following drugs are used: cerecrop, glyatylin, asparcam, diacarb, vinpocetine, karsavin, tenectole, cavinton, soloseril. The choice of drugs, the determination of their dosage and the duration of the course of treatment should be made by the doctor, so the selected remedies can harm the body.

    Surgical treatment of

    Unfortunately, conservative therapy can only slow down or stop the development of the disease, it can be fundamentally cured by surgical treatments. Previously, for the treatment of hydrocephalus, bypass surgery was used, with its existence there was a high risk of complications, the shunt had to be replaced every few years, and the patient depended on his work. The development of new methods made it possible to abandon the use of shunting.

    Modern neurosurgeons mostly use endoscopic surgical intervention techniques. The advantages of this method of treatment are:

    • lack of the need to introduce a foreign body into the structure of the brain;
    • restoration of physiological outflow of liver;
    • low risk of complications;
    • had a traumatic surgical intervention.

    Hydrocephaly( hydrocephalus) of the brain - causes, symptoms, treatment

    After the treatment, the patient can live a normal person's life.

    Open drainage is inappropriate because this type of surgical intervention can lead to many complications. This method is indicated in rare cases where it is impossible to apply other treatment.

    A moderate substitution external otitis of the brain with no complaints in its entirety without treatment. With this form of disease, you should regularly visit your doctor and go through the recommended examinations so as not to miss even a slight increase in the amount of liquor.