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Retinoids - What are these drugs?

People know about vitamins and their benefits to the body already in elementary school, but about retinoids - what is it - only when some dysfunctional in the work of their body comes from the attending physician.

Retinoids are a class of organic compounds that are different in

chemical forms of vitamin A, or which in their chemical composition relate to it. Retinoids of natural origin are part of food products, and their synthetic analogues are obtained artificially in laboratories.

Is divided into 3 generations:

  • retinol, retinal, tretinoin( retinoic acid and retin-A), isotretinoin and alitretinin;
  • etretinat and its intermediate synthesis product - acetitrain;
  • bexarotene, tazarotene and adapolene.

The typical structure of the retinoid molecule is cyclic and polar closed groups with polyene lateral branches( chains), which they are interconnected with double bonds of type C = C.These lateral branches determine the coloration of retinoids: mostly yellow, orange, or red. The type of alternation of the side chains and end groups determines the belonging of the retinoid to a certain class.

Retinoids of the first and second generations have flexible coupling between the groups of their molecules with single and double links of the side chains, so they are able to communicate with a large number of proteins in the body, to carry out chemical reactions. Third-generation retinoids do not possess such flexibility, and already bind to a much smaller number of protein molecules.

1 Vitamin A and its value for the body

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, discovered as an independent group of organic compounds in 1920, and it was proved its need for several important functions of the living organism. Here are some of the most important features that he's involved in.

  • Vision. Vitamin A is needed to maintain normal vision. His shortage leads to various violations of visual perception. Nictolopia( twilight sight disorder, or, in the people, chicken blindness), a decrease in color perception, visual blurry of the picture, a feeling of film in front of the eyes - the first bells that feed the body when defecation of this vitamin.
  • Immune System. With deficiency in the body of vitamin A, the defenses of the body are reduced, resulting in frequent colds and increased susceptibility to various infections and diseases.
  • Cell Growth. The cells that make up the body have a life span. Instead, they come in new cells, and old, dead, are removed from the body. Vitamin A, bind to proteins, produces chemical reactions, which result in the synthesis of new cells. Thus, vitamin A is needed to form the growth of hair cells, bones, skin, muscles, and fetus during pregnancy.
  • Retinoids - What are these drugs?

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    2 Application in cosmetology

    One of the basic instincts of a person is a sexual instinct. It is he who forces a person to follow his appearance, to decorate and ennoble his body with cosmetics, clothing, sports, diets so that representatives of the opposite sex are interested in it.

    Depending on the belonging to one or another floor, the implementation of instinct takes place differently, but the appearance of cosmetic defects in his body puts people in disbelief and makes them ask for help in cosmetology salons or clinics( which is much better).If the problem is due to a lack of vitamins in the body, then cosmetology is powerless. After all, it is necessary to diagnose which vitamin is not enough, to appoint a diet and preparations, their dosage, and this is already a branch of medicine.

    Retinoids - What are these drugs?

    A deficiency in the body of vitamin A causes such troubles as dryness and peeling of the skin, dryness and fragility of the hair, early wrinkles and folds. The cosmetician will offer remedies for problems: beauty spots, vitamin creams, masks, and shampoos. However, these remedies do not eliminate defects, but only mask them for a while and can be used for this purpose only in conjunction with the treatment of a doctor. That is why the appeal to cosmetology clinics is better than in salons: there is a comprehensive approach to defects in appearance.

    3 Substances in Medicine

    Retinoids, as an abundance of their forms of vitamin A, have found their application in medicine. Separate nosological units, caused by its deficit, were not detected during scientific research. The high degree of vitamin A deficiency leads to necrotizing corneal relaxation( keratomalation), and blindness, panophthalmitis, and secondary purulent encephalitis may occur. When scurvy, as a whole organism vitamin, deficiency of vitamin A acts as an indirect cause of the disease, the lack of one vitamin in combination with the other. At the current level of civilization development, it is practically impossible.

    Retinoids - What are these drugs?

    However, insufficient vitamin A in the body causes symptoms that can be as independent and be part of the syndrome of serious illness.

    These symptoms are as follows:

    • dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, sand in the eyes;
    • visual impairment, conjunctivitis;
    • cough in the absence of colds, without cause;
    • is a violation of the normal functioning of the Systolic-Gastrointestinal tract;
    • general weakness, fatigue, chronic fatigue.

    These symptoms are commonly referred to a therapist or an ophthalmologist. In case of suspected deficiency of retinoids in an organism of a patient, the specialist sends him to an endocrinologist. And already the endocrinologist sends a patient for analysis to determine the amount of retinol and carotene( forms of retinoids) in serum. Eye biomicroscopy is also an accurate diagnostic method for determining vitamin A deficiency.

    With the help of blood analysis, experts diagnose not only vitamin A deficiency but also its excess. Signs of excess vitamin A in the body are as follows: vomiting, headache, itchy skin, muscle and joint stiffness, insomnia and hypersensitivity, fever.

    There are typical signs of poisoning. It is difficult to diagnose an excess of retinoids, since it could have been a lot of people poisoning. An important factor in determining the cause is interviewing the patient. The doctor needs to know if the patient is a supporter of any dietary system, does not deal with or network marketing, which spreads various Bads and nutritional supplements, does not deal with self-medication. If the answer is positive, then it is necessary to establish which drugs he took.

    By setting a vitamin A surplus in the patient's body, a specialist prescribes a diet that eliminates the products that contain it. In particularly difficult cases, detoxification of the body is carried out by various methods, including intravenous drip administration of antioxidants, for example.

    4 Pharmacological preparations

    Vitamin A in food products is in two main forms: retinol and carotenoids.

    Retinol is a vitamin A, and carotenoids are compounds that are already directly converted into the human body under the influence of chemical reactions in vitamin A.

    Retinol contains products of animal origin: fat, fish oil, egg yolk, liver, fatty dairy products. Carotenoids and their compounds in large quantities are found in vegetables and fruits of red color: carrots, peppers, tomatoes;in greens and sea buckthorn oil. These foods are recommended for diets with low levels of vitamin in the body.

    Retinoids - What are these drugs?

    In the vast majority of cases, specialists are prescribed auxiliary drugs as an additional source of retinoids for treatment.

    The pharmacological industry produces retinol-containing drugs in three main forms:

    • tablets, pills, capsules;
    • solution for retinol acetate or palmitate for injections;
    • ointment( retinoic).

    Carotenoids are part of vitamin complexes such as Aveit, Undieve, Aquital, Hendevit and many others.

    Since the time when the retinoids have been discovered and pharmacists have learned to artificially synthesize them, decades have passed. Available in pharmacies vitamin A preparations - this is the result of long and science-intensive research of scientists. Chemical formulas of various drugs have been subject to many adjustments, changes to improve their functionality and reduce side effects. The compatibility or incompatibility of retinoids with other elements was revealed, their behavior in the human body and influence on it were investigated.

    Today, preparations containing vitamin A are at the level at which modern knowledge in the field of medicine and pharmacology is available. Research in medical research institutes is ongoing.