Stroke of the left side of the brain: symptoms and effects
- 29 Aug 14:45
- Causes of the Left Hemisphere Brain
- Left Hemisphere Brain
- Features of Clinical Symptoms of the Left Stroke
- Diagnostic Methods
- Treatment Principles
- Consequences of the Left Stroke
It is well known that the human brain'sbrain consists of two hemispheres, the right and left, whichresponsible for certain functions of the body. Previously it was thought that the two hemispheres perform the same functions( duplicate each other's work), but during the last ten years of intensive study of this issue it turned out that this is completely wrong. There is such a concept as the functional asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres, which means that the left and right half of the brain have their own unique functions, although some are duplicated.
Accordingly, the development of the left hemisphere stroke has completely different symptoms and consequences than the right one. As a rule, the left side of the brain stroke is more difficult and has the worst prognosis. This is due to the fact that in most people the left hemisphere is dominant. On the left, on the contrary, it is more difficult to have a right-sided stroke.
In this article, we will consider the features of the cerebral left hemisphere stroke and its implications.
Causes of the left cerebral stroke of the brain
Causes of the stroke of the left half of the brain are the same as the right one. There are no discrepancies. There are two types of stroke of the brain: ischemic, or cerebral infarction, hemorrhage, or hemorrhage into the brain tissue.
The essence of pathological changes in ischemic stroke is the clogging of a specific artery of the brain by a thrombus, embolus or its prolonged spasm, compression from the outside. This leads to acute ischemia of the part of the brain that feeds on it. Accordingly, if ischemia is not eliminated within 3-7 minutes, brain cells die, and that part of the brain is softened with the formation of a zone of heart attack. It is important to understand that the more caliber of the damaged artery, the larger the focus of the damage in the brain.
The main causes of ischemic stroke :
- cerebral atherosclerosis;
- hypertonic disease;
- embolic diseases( congenital or acquired heart defects, cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation, blood diseases with high viscosity, infectious lesions with the development of septic changes);
- diabetes mellitus;
- systemic connective tissue diseases;
- cerebral artery spasm;
- oral contraceptives;
- bad habits( smoking and alcohol).
A hemorrhagic stroke develops when the arterial vessel loses its integrity and blood flows into the brain tissue, impregnating it. Hemorrhagic stroke proceeds much more complicated and the outlook is worse, since the focus of the lesion is large.
The main causes of hemorrhagic stroke :
- high blood pressure;
- damage to the vascular wall and its fragility( atherosclerosis, hyalinosis, dystrophic changes);
- of the aneurysm of the brain;
- vasculitis - vascular inflammation;
- poisoning by some chemicals;
- blood diseases accompanied by poor coagulation;
- overdose for blood thinners.
Functions of the left hemisphere of the brain
To understand why these and not other symptoms have a left side stroke, consider the basic functions of the left hemisphere:
- Duplicate functions( ie in the right and left hemisphere) - motor activity and all types of sensitivity( temperature, tactile, pain, proprioceptive), vision, hearing, sense of smell. But there is a feature - the left hemisphere is responsible for the right part of the body, and the right - for the left. Accordingly, with a stroke in the left part of the brain, these functions are lost on the right side of the body.
- Functions that only have the left hemisphere( if it is dominant) are the language( both motor and speech), abstract thinking, logic and analytics, the formation of motor stereotypes, mathematical operations, writing, perceptions of time, reading, memory
Through the left hemisphere, a person can perceive verbal information, communicate with other people, process the information received, classify it, memorize it, analyze it adequately, making logical inferences and establishing causal relationships.
Thus, with the defeat of the appropriate centers in the left hemisphere, the described functions may be lost. Sometimes it's one, and sometimes a few( it all depends on the location of the focus of the damage and its size).
Features of the clinical symptoms of left-sided stroke
The clinical picture of any stroke consists of three groups of symptoms( cerebral, focal and vegetative) that can be expressed differently and manifest in various combinations, and oftenthe disease is accompanied by a clinic of a concomitant illness, for example, hypertension.
Common Symptoms of
This group is characterized by irritation of the brain and increased intracranial pressure. Most often they are expressed in a hemorrhagic stroke and are little manifested in ischemic.
The most common cerebrospinal stroke symptoms:
- is a very strong and intense headache;
- nausea and vomiting;
- violations of consciousness to varying degrees, up to heavy coma.
Focal Neurological Symptoms
Focal neurological signs of a stroke are always developing, but their type and degree of severity depends on where exactly the catheter occurred in the left hemisphere and how big the focus of the lesion is.
Common focal neurological symptoms:
- paresis or paralysis of one limb or the entire right half of the body, including facial muscles;
- sensitivity loss to the right;
- visual disturbance, up to complete blindness, hearing, smell;
- speech impairment with the development of motor or sensory aphasia;
- memory loss;
- Disturbance of coordination of movements and equilibrium.
A stroke is always accompanied by a reaction of the autonomic nervous system, which manifests itself in the form of:
- disorders of rhythm and respiratory rate;
- development of shortness of breath;
- feelings of fear;
- for increased tilt formation;
- changes in the color of the skin - their redness or pallor;
- feeling of heat;
- Dry mouth;
- trembling in the body and not at rest.
It is easy to diagnose a stroke. This can be done in the first minutes of its development in a characteristic clinical picture. It is much more difficult to determine the type of brain stroke its localization and magnitude, since treatment depends directly on it. For this purpose, the following surveys are used:
Principles of treatment for
Treatment of the left hemisphere stroke is no different from the right one. Apply basic and specific therapy, which depends on the type of stroke.
Basic treatment is to support the basic functions of life( respiratory normalization, cardiovascular system work, homeostasis of the blood, maintaining an optimal blood pressure, fighting hyperthermia and cerebral edema, with complications such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, respiratory system, improvement of microcirculation,metabolic therapy and symptomatic treatment).
Specific therapy is the administration of drugs that dilute blood and dissolve blood clots at ischemic stroke( anticoagulants, thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents), and drugs that stop bleeding during hemorrhagic stroke.
Consequences of left-sided stroke
A stroke of the left hemisphere of the brain occurs somewhat more often than the right one( in 57% of cases).As already mentioned, its run and forecast are worse. The consequences of the left-hand stroke include:
- paralysis of the right side of the body;
- sensitivity violation on the right;
- speech problems( motor or sensory aphasia);
- loss of readability, writing, mathematical operations;
- memory impairment;
- failure to logical and abstract thinking, to inferences and conclusions.
Video of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres:
The human brain of the large hemisphere
Watch this video on YouTube
Thus, a stroke of the left hemisphere of the brain may not only cause the development of severe disability but also the loss of communication, important intellectual abilities of a person, memory 'which often has a very negative effect on the patient and leads to the development of severe depression and loss of interest in recovery. At this time, the support of loved ones is very important, which should encourage the patient in every possible way and encourage him to recover.