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Brain cancer 4 stages: signs, treatment methods and prognosis

Contents

  • 4 Stage Of Cerebral Cancer: What Does It Mean?
  • Causes of Brain Tumors 4 Stages
  • Symptoms of Brain Cancer 4 Stages of
  • Diagnostic Methods of
  • Principles and Treatment Options of
  • Forecast for Cerebral Cancer 4 Stages of

The term "Stage Cancer of the 4 Stages" in Medicine

refers to an entire group of heterogeneous tumor diseases of the brain tissue,the shells of the brain, the blood and lymph vessels within the cranial box, the cranial nerves, the glands of the endocrine secretion of the brain( the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus), and the skull itself, which is in the final stage of its development.the flight. Unfortunately, a patient with such a diagnosis can not be cured. There are only few cases of recovery that can not be explained by medicine. According to statistics, 3-month survival rate of people diagnosed with brain cancer in stage 4 is only 15-20%.

4 Stage Of Cerebral Cancer: What Does It Mean?

The classification of brain tumors is complicated by some features of the behavior of tumors inside the skull. For example, primary( non metastatic tumors of the brain tissue never metastasize), as well as every tumor that grows rapidly and leads to compression of healthy tissue and increase intracranial pressure, can be considered malignant. But in this case, the criterion of malignancy is not cellular atypism( although this is taken into account), but the complications that cause such education and the high risk of fatal outcome.

TNM classed as an oncology( tumor - primary tumor, nodus - metastases in regional lymph nodes, metastasis - distant metastases) are not used to determine the stages of brain cancer. Today, brain tumors are divided into clinical stages, according to the classification adopted by the WHO in 2000.

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Brain cancer 4 stages: signs, treatment methods and prognosis
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Separate 4 stages of brain cancer:

  • Relative to benign formations.
  • Tumors with minimal signs of malignancy.
  • Novelties with marked signs of malignancy.
  • The most malignant and aggressive tumors that grow rapidly and lead to a fatal outcome in a short time.
  • Criteria for determining the stages of brain tumors:

    • aetipism of cell nuclei;
    • the number of pathological mitoses in the tumor tissue;
    • degree of proliferative changes in vascular endothelium;
    • is the presence of necrosis in tumor tissue.

    To stage four include neoplasms that have 3 or 4 criteria described above( to the first, benign, belong to those entities that do not have any of the described criteria for malignancy).

    It is also necessary to clarify that not every brain tumor can have all stages. For example, glioblastoma originally belongs to 4 stages( this tumor is not 1-3 stages), and subapendimalnaya giant-cellular astrocytoma is only a tumor of stage 1, it is not malignant.

    But there is such a thing in medicine as the malignant transformation of tumors, when a benign tumor turns into malignant. Therefore, all brain tumors need to be treated immediately and not to wait for a minute.

    There are several dozen histological variants of the malignant tumors of the 4 stages, which are determined during the pathomorphological study. Establishing the exact variant and stage of cancer occurs, as a rule, after the operation to remove the tumor, as the brain biopsy is complicated from a technical point of view.

    Brain cancer 4 stages: signs, treatment methods and prognosis

    Glioblastoma - the most aggressive brain tumor

    Causes of brain tumors in 4 stages of

    Unfortunately, the true causes of the development of malignant diseases of the brain are not known today. Scientists can only guess about such on the basis of observing patients. Consequently, an increased risk of brain cancer has people who are:

    • operate with radioactive substances or are subject to radiation on any occasion;
    • those with family history of brain cancer( genetic predisposition);
    • operate under hazardous conditions and have constant contact with chemical carcinogens;
    • smokers;
    • people who are exposed to electromagnetic radiation;
    • Those with a history of craniocerebral trauma;
    • has established some relationship between cases of brain cancer and viral diseases.

    It's important to remember! All people who are at risk for developing brain tumors should be always on the alert. And in case of the appearance of symptoms that may indicate a tumor of the brain( headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, focal neurological signs), it is imperative to visit a doctor to clarify the nature of anxiety symptoms.

    Brain Cancer Symptoms 4 Stages

    Typically, in the case of 4 stages of brain cancer, the patient has histological variants of tumors such as glioblastoma, gliosarcoma, astrocytoma. In 60% of cases a multivariate glioblastoma is diagnosed, the prognosis of which is unsuccessful.

    It is often the case that the first anxiety symptoms are dropped by patients and doctors. Patients are worried about progressing and persistent headaches and dizziness, but they do not seek medical attention, and drown pain with analgesics. Meanwhile, the tumor is growing and causes deterioration of the condition, deepening of existing features and the emergence of new ones. As a rule, such patients begin to carefully examine and diagnose brain cancer in 4 stages, when practically nothing is done.

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    General symptoms at the 4 stages of

    The headache in such patients is very intense and persistent, with each passing day it progresses( to the extenttumor growth and increased intracranial pressure).It is accompanied by nausea and vomiting, which does not bring long-awaited relief( cerebral vomiting).The pain is not eliminated by conventional analgesics, and sometimes by drugs. A little help to relieve the condition of drugs for reducing pressure inside the skull, for example, diuretics. The pain intensifies in the morning after sleep and in a horizontal position.

    Almost always such patients suffer from dizziness. There are also frequent cases of disturbances of consciousness - from light stupor or sopor to outspoken coma and the need to transfer a person to a system of artificial maintenance of life.

    Some meningeal symptoms may occur, which is due to irritation of the tumor of the brain.

    Focal Neurological Symptoms at 4 Stages

    This group of symptoms and their severity depends on the size of the primary tumor, as well as on its localization. For example, signs of cancer of the frontal lobe of the brain will be fundamentally different from the tumor of the parietal region.

    In the fourth stage, patients with a brain tumor may be observed:

    • motor disturbances of varying degrees of severity( paralysis or paresis) and localization - may suffer one limb on the opposite side of the body from cerebral lesion, or hemiparesis with involvement of both hands and feet on the opposite side of the tumor may be observed;
    • in case of damage to the cerebellum is primarily a disturbance of the movement and pathology of coordination;
    • with a tumor growth in the occipital region or compression of the optic nerve on the basis of the brain in patients develop at first a variety of visual disturbances that end with blindness;
    • also suffers from a sensitive function, and, in the direction of gain( hyperesthesia), and decrease, different types of sensitivity( tactile, temperature, pain, vibration) are lost;
    • may also suffer the patient's language, and in some cases he can not speak, and secondly, he does not even understand the language he has( motor and sensory aphasia);
    • suffers from the function of the auditory analyzer and deafness develops;
    • often has frequent convulsive seizures in patients with 4 stages of cancer;
    • in most cases also suffers from the intellectual sphere of brain activity, memory loss develops, dementia, changing nature, developing various mental illness, hallucinations( especially characteristic of tumors of the frontal area of ​​the brain).

    Brain cancer 4 stages: signs, treatment methods and prognosis

    The most frequent focal neurological symptoms of brain cancer in the last stage of

    significantly aggravate the condition of patients with autonomic disorders and the effects of cerebral edema. The latter, in most cases, acts as the direct cause of the death of patients with the fourth stage of brain tumor. The fact is that the brain is located in a closed space, a cranial box, and in case of growth of a tumor of healthy tissue, there is nowhere to go.

    Pressure inside the skull is increased, one hundred leads to the wedge of the trunk of the brain into a large occipital opening. In the trunk there are all vital centers of respiration and palpitation, because with such a complication an instant stop of breathing and heart occurs, leading to imminent death.

    Diagnostic Methods

    For the diagnosis of cerebral tumor use:

    • general and neurological examination;
    • methods of medical neuroimaging - MRI, CT, PET-CT;
    • angiography of the vessels;
    • spinal puncture for the study of liver;
    • electroencephalography;
    • histological determination of the tumor variant( brain biopsy or post-surgical material study).

    Determining the histological variant of the tumor is very important, since all of them are sensitive to chemo drugs, radiation irradiation and have a different prognosis. If the doctor knows which tumor is present in the patient, it helps to find the most effective method of complex treatment and to make a more accurate prediction.

    Brain cancer 4 stages: signs, treatment methods and prognosis

    MRI-picture of brain cancer 4 stages of

    Principles and treatment options of

    Due to the high degree of malignancy of the 4 stages, their rapid growth and adverse prognosis, all of them are considered inoperable, but in some cases, patients undergo neurosurgical intervention, but only with a palliative purpose - to continue onseveral weeks of life, improve its quality and alleviate suffering.

    The following treatment methods can be used, both independently and in a complex:

    • neurosurgical operation - is used rarely because of inoperability of tumors of 4 stages;
    • Radiation Therapy - facilitates the condition of patients, therefore, it is necessarily applied at the last stage of the cancer process, if the general condition of a person allows;
    • chemotherapy is often used in patients with stage 4 as a palliative treatment with radiotherapy.

    In some cases, people with stage 4 cancer of the brain use experimental treatments that sometimes give a chance to prolong their lives.

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    Forecast for cerebral cancer 4 stages of

    Cerebral Cancer stage 4 is considered incurable, but with adequate therapy it is possible to prolong human life for several months and improve its quality. The average life expectancy of patients with diagnosed brain tumors in the final stage is 3-4 months. Patients die as a result of cerebral edema, anterior coma, respiratory arrest and palpitations.