Bovenoid papule - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
- 21 Aug 08:15
- Disease Of The Skin
Bovenoid papule - a disease that belongs to the category of precancerous conditions, it is caused by papillomavirus. Since the virus is transmitted mainly by sexual contact, among the patients, basically, those who are in the reproductive age - from 17 to 45 years.However, there are cases where the bovine papule was diagnosed in children. Infection of a child often occurs during childbirth from a sick mother.
- 1 Causes of development of
- 2 Clinical picture of
- 3 Methods of diagnosis
- 4 Treatment of
- 4.1 Treatment by folk methods
- 5 Prevention and prognosis
Causes of development of
The etiological factor in the development of bovenoid papules is infection of HPV.Infection with this virus also causes the growth of warts, papillomas and warts. In most patients, bovenoid papules develop as a result of infection with papillomavirus of type 33, 31, 18 and 16.However, cases have been described where the papules developed and when infected with other types of HPV.
Infection with HPV, most often, occurs when sexual contact with the patient or carrier. After getting into the body of HPV it is not activated immediately, from the time of infection to the appearance of clinical manifestations can take 2-3 months, and sometimes the incubation period lasts for several years.
Clinical picture of
Manifestations of bovenoid papules are rashes, and the elements of rash with this disease may be different. Papulosis may appear on the skin:
- Red Spots;
- Pigmented lichenoid papules;
- Plaques resembling rash in leukoplakia.
Elements of rash can be plural, but some patients develop a single education. The size of the rash elements varies from 1-2 mm to 3-4 cm in diameter.
As a rule, bovenoid papules occur without subjective sensations, although some patients complain of itching in the area of rash location. With secondary infection, inflammation is possible, accompanied by severe pain.
Most commonly, bovenoid papules are manifested in the formation of pigmented papules. This is an elastic formation of pinkish yellow, brown or purple hue. The surface of the papule, usually smooth, but may also be warty.
With the appearance of lichenoid papules, the rash element is a seal on the skin with an intense skin pattern. Usually such papules have a rough surface and unchanged skin color. In some patients, papules are covered with serous cortex. Sometimes individual papules form plaques, by fusion.
If the bovenoid papule is manifested by the formation of plaques by type of leukoplakia, the rash is clearly limited and has a milky or white-gray color.
Typical localization of rash with bovenoid papules - genital area. In women rash appears on the labia or clitoris, in men - on the skin of the penis. Very often, if the rash in the bovenoid papules is localized on the penis, then very often the disease is confused with the mother-of-paternal papules of the penis. Perhaps the appearance of rash on the thighs, in the perianal region, on the mucous membrane and oral cavity. As a rule, on the skin appear pigmented papules, and on the mucous membranes - lichenoid.
Very often, bovenoid papules occur in combination with the formation of warts and warts, and women are often diagnosed with dysplasia of the cervix.
Bovenoid papule is characterized by a long run. The elements of the rash are usually stable, they do not grow in size, the number of them remains constant. Spontaneous temporary remissions are sometimes noted, although the literature describes cases where the bovenoid papule was spontaneously allowed and never more disturbed by the patient.
Many patients consider bovenoid papule to be a harmless disease and little attention is paid to it. Meanwhile, the papule belongs to the precancerous conditions. The degeneration of the rash components into squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, vulval cancer or the penis can not be ruled out. Therefore, patients who are diagnosed with bovenoid papule are subject to dispensary registration with mandatory check-ups.
After exposing the rash, patients usually turn to the dermatologist. In addition, the elements of the rash can be detected by accident, with a routine examination by a gynecologist or urologist. In case of suspected bovine papule, the patient should be referred for consultation to a venereologist who, after the examination, establishes the final diagnosis.
Diagnosis of papules is based on external examination of rash elements, cytological examination, biopsy, and also the results of PCR-diagnostics, which reveals the presence of papillomavirus in the body. By the way, papillomavirus can also be the cause of the development of keratoacchantomy and warts.
Smears, scratches or blood may be taken for the PRC study. Be sure to conduct a serological examination for syphilis to rule out the syphilitic nature of the rash( syphilis).
For the cytology, a smear-imprint or scraper from the rash element is taken. During the study, there is a large number of epithelial cells with a light rim around the nucleus as well as dual-core cells.
When conducting the histological examination of the tissue of the rash element of the papule, a typical pattern of insitu cancers, i.e., precancerous, is detected. A distinctive difference between the papule and the Bowen disease is that atypical polymorphous cells are scattered in the epidermis during papules, and during the Bowen disease they are grouped.
Bovine parotitis, as a rule, does not cause particular concern to the patient. Nevertheless, it is necessary to treat the disease, in connection with the possible transition to cancer.
Detection of rash elements by cryodestruction( exposure to liquid nitrogen), laser treatment or electrocoagulation is shown. Sometimes you have to resort to surgical removal of the rash part of the papules.
If it is impossible to carry out an operation, the use of external means containing cytostatics( for example, prospidinovaya ointment), as well as the shaking of the elements of rash with interferon is prescribed.
Additionally, in the case of bovenoid papules, antiviral therapy is prescribed, aimed at reducing the HPV activity.
Treatment by folk methods
The folk methods of treating papules are recommended only as additional measures for basic treatment.
It is recommended to use celandine juice to lubricate the rash elements in papules. Fresh juice is applied to the rash three times a day.
In winter, it is difficult to find fresh celandine, so you can use an ointment prepared on the basis of dry, powdered grass. To prepare the ointment, you should take 70 grams of pharmacy vaseline, 10 grams of lanolin and 20 grams of powder from the herb celandine. It is good to mix and lubricate the places of rash with papules.
Prevention and prognosis
Prevention of bovine papular disease is to prevent the infection of HPV.Since the virus is transmitted sexually, the main measure of prevention of the development of the papules is the fidelity to one partner. In the case of sexual contacts with an unverified partner, you must use a condom, after the act it is recommended to wash the genital organs with antiseptic fluid, for example, Miramistinom.
Forecast for bovenoid papules, provided that timely treatment is good. However, even when carrying out competent and comprehensive treatment possible relapses of the disease.