Small pox is natural - causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention
- 15 Aug 08:45
- Disease Of The Skin
Black or otherwise, smallpox is a highly infectious disease. Two types of related viruses can lead to the development of smallpox: Variola major and Variola minor. When infected with the virus of the first type, the mortality of patients with the viscose is according to various data from 20 to 90%.A disease caused by the second type of the virus, the disease proceeds less difficult, mortality in this case is low and is 1-3%.
People who have suffered natural pain can completely or partially lose sight of the skin, as a rule, there are numerous scars that greatly distort the appearance, such scars may also remain after the smallpox - congenital photodermatosis. Smallpox is not an infectious disease, such as black or chicken pox.
Table of contents
- 1 Causes of
- 2 disease development Clinical picture
- 2.1 Incubation period
- 2.2 Prognosis period
- 2.3 Period of rash
- 2.4 Period of suppuration
- 2.5 Recovery time
- 3 Possible complications of
- 4 Methods of diagnosis
- 5 Treatment of
- 5.1 Treatment of folk remedies
- 6 Forecastand prevention of
- 7 Photo
Causes of the development of the disease
A virus that causes natural smallpox is extremely resistant to external influences. It easily tolerates drying, reducing the temperature. In frozen form, the smallpox virus remains viable for years.
Under normal conditions, the smallpox virus in a person's sputum is stored for up to three months. In the crust, which has disappeared from smallpox rash, it is stored for a year. It can withstand the virus and heat up to high temperatures. So, when heated in dry form to 100 degrees, the smallpox virus is able to survive for 10 minutes.
When infected with a donkey, the source is a sick person. The risk of infection persists for the entire period of occurrence of rash, especially high contagiousness is observed in the first 10 days of the disease.
Isolation of viruses occurs during conversation, coughing and even breathing. May serve as a source of infection and the skin of the patient with a donkey. However, most often the infection occurs in an aerosol type, that is, with inhaled air containing the virus.
Aerosol containing a smallpox virus can travel over long distances with airflow, so that the risk of infection with the porphyry is not only those who are near the patient, but also those in the adjoining rooms and even in rooms located on the otherfloorsThis is due to the movement of air from ventilation systems.
The level of smallpox is very high. Among the non-vaccinated and did not become sick with a natural kidney of people, immune to the virus is not more than 5-7%.
People who become sick with a giraffe gain a long and lasting immunity to the disease.
Clinical picture of
In the course of the disease, five periods are distinguished: incubation period, prognostic period( prodromal), appearance of rashes, suppuration and recovery.
This period begins at the time of the entry of the smallpox virus into the body and continues until the appearance of the first symptom. In most cases, this period lasts from 9 to 14 days, sometimes it lasts longer - up to 22 days.
At this time, the first manifestations of smallpox appear. There are signs of intoxication, fever appears. Sometimes there is a red rash, looks like a rash at the bark. This period lasts for up to 4 days, until the end of the fever, as a rule, passes.
About the fourth day after the appearance of initial signs of illness, ospinia rash appears. First, it is small roses. Over time, the rash turns from papule, even later - into vesicles. The period of transfusion rash takes about three days.
Vesicles with natural wicks look like small, multi-chamber knots with a characteristic deepening in the center, appear on the background of hyperimited skin.
Whistling rash appears throughout the body, while in one zone all rashes are monomorphic, that is, they are at one stage of development. As the rash progresses in patients with a natural vagina, signs of intoxication appear again, fever is noted.
The period of suppuration of
During the period of black fever, supernatsion begins until the second week after the appearance of a rash. At this time there is a sharp deterioration of the general condition, high temperature rises. Vesicles cease to be multi-chamber, turning into large pustules with purulent content. After their drying, necrotic crust is formed in black. In this period of the disease there is a severe itchiness of the skin.
The period of reconvalescence( recovery) in the case of natural whiskey occurs approximately one month after the onset of the disease. The temperature gradually begins to decrease, the vyspina heals. Strong peeling remains at the site of rash, and in the future scars, which can be very deep, are formed.
It is accepted to allocate several clinical forms of smallpox. The most severe include papular-hemorrhagic and drainage forms, as well as ospunnoe purpura. By moderate forms include scattered smallpox. Another form - varioiloid, is the easiest form of natural smallpox, which occurs with minor rashes, do not leave scars.
Possible complications of
In natural wipes, complications such as an infectious and toxic shock are common. Often there are complications from the central nervous system, such diseases as neuritis, myelitis, encephalitis.
There is a high probability of attachment of bacterial infection, in this case, purulent abscesses, phlegmons, lymphadenitis develop. On the background of smallpox may develop pleurisy, purulent otitis media, pneumonia, osteomyelitis. Extremely severe complication of smallpox is sepsis.
The basis for the diagnosis of smallpox is the clinical signs of the disease. To confirm the diagnosis take for analysis the content of vesicles, crust, blood, washings from the nose and oral cavity.
The presence of the virus is detected by applying electron microscopy techniques, using ELISA, PCR techniques. Obtaining the previous result is possible in a day. The material is then used for further research aimed at identifying the variety of the pathogen.
Patients with gout are placed in infective boxes for at least 40 days. The recommended bedtime diet, which spends the diet( №4).
Etiotropic( aimed at eliminating the cause) of the treatment of smallpox is the use of the following drugs:
- Metisazon for 6 days.
- Virazole( ribavirin) for 5 days.
- Specific antiperspirant immunoglobulin.
- As a prevention of secondary infection and complications of the disease, macrolides, semi-synthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins are prescribed.
Pathogenetic( directed to the mechanisms of the course of the disease) for the treatment of natural smallpox:
- Desensitizing agents;
- Drugs to support the work of the cardiovascular system;
- Polyionic and glucose-saline solutions for intravenous administration.
Symptomatic( aimed at alleviating manifestations of the disease) for the treatment of smallpox:
- Sleep disorder.
Local Treatment for Natural Wipes:
- Treatment of 5% Rash with Potassium Permanganate;
- To reduce the itching during the formation of the crust, use 1% menthol ointment.
- A cavity of the mouth should be treated with a solution( 1%) of sodium hydrogen carbonate.
- Eyes should be washed with solution( 20%) of sulfacil sodium.
- Eyelashes lubricate with a solution of( 1%) boric acid.
Natural Pox is a particularly dangerous disease. In case of suspicion of this infection, the patient is subject to strict isolation. The medical staff that works with such a patient should be dressed in an anti-plague suit of the III degree of protection and mask.
The premises in which the patient was hospitalized, as well as his belongings are subject to disinfection. Things are processed with a solution( 5%) of lysol. Utensils and linen soak in solution( 3%) of chloramine, then subject to boiling. Wastes and garbage must be burned.
People who have been in contact with a sickle patient are placed on quarantine for a period of 17 days. All contact persons should be vaccinated, regardless of when they received the vaccine.
Treatment of folk remedies
Natural measles is one of the most dangerous diseases, so folk remedies can be used only as a supplement to medical therapy.
It is recommended to use tinctures of calendula, celandine, to lubricate rancid rashes. You can gently lubricate the tea tree oil rash, this procedure helps to relieve itching.
Vitamin-based tea based on medicinal plants( hips, sage, mint, chamomile, dry berries of sea buckthorn), chewing natural pine resin.
Forecast and prevention
The only effective prophylaxis of smallpox is vaccination. About variation( inoculation with a dangerous smallpox vaccine) has been known since the Middle Ages, such preventive measures have been practiced in India and China.
In Europe, the first vaccines against smallpox were made in the XVIII century. A mass vaccine was initiated after the invention of a vaccine manufactured using a cow pox virus. In Russia, the first grafters were Empress Catherine II, her son and daughter-in-law.
In 1967, the WHO decides to mass vaccination of the planet's inhabitants. The last case of the disease of the natural venaea in case of natural infection was noted in 1977 in Africa. In 1980, it was announced the complete elimination of smallpox. At the same time, mass vaccination of children was stopped. Currently vaccination is carried out before traveling to an epidemic dangerous area.
Forecast for natural whiskey depends on the form of the disease, the general condition of the patient and the severity of the course. Vaccinated people, as a rule, tolerate the disease in a mild form.