AIDS - skin manifestations
- 15 Aug 07:30
- Disease Of The Skin
For people infected with HIV and those with Snid, various skin lesions are quite characteristic. Dermatological problems are observed in all clinical forms of the disease, including the beginning of the stage of developed Snid.
Almost all skin diseases in HIV-infected people are chronic with frequent relapses. At later stages of the Snood, dermatological illnesses become severe.
According to studies conducted on HIV positive patients at an early stage of the disease, an average of 2-3 dermatologic syndromes is observed, and at the later stage of the disease, this rate increases to 4-5.
The various manifestations of Snid are various dermatitis, eczema, staphyloderma, cadidaceous skin lesions, severe herpes symptoms. In patients with Snid often develop fungal lesions of the skin - multicolored lichen, rubrofitiya, inguinal epidermis.
- 1 Causes of
- 2 Common dermatological diseases in HIV infection
- 2.1 Kaposi's sarcoma
- 2.2 Candidiasis
- 2.3 Lichen and skin herpetic lesions
- 2.4 Papylomatoz
- 3 Diagnostic Techniques
- 4 Methods of treatment
- 5 Prediction and prevention
- 6 photo
CausesThe development of
AIDS is a viral disease that is provoked by an infectious agent belonging to the family of retroviruses.
Virologists distinguish between two types of HIV-1 and 2 types, the viruses differ in antigenic and structural characteristics. The causative agent of Snid, most often, is HIV-1 of the first type. In an infected person, the virus appears in most biological environments and cellular elements.
Infection is transmitted through biological fluids - blood, including menstrual discharge, breast milk, semen. The risk group for HIV infection includes:
- People who enter into occasional sexual intercourse;
- Drug addicts;
- People suffering from hemophilia;
- Children whose subjects were infected before or during pregnancy.
Skin manifestations Sleep disorder develops due to reduced immunity in patients. Therefore, many dermatological diseases in such patients occur atypically with more severe symptoms than usual.
Typical dermatological diseases with HIV infection
People with HIV and SNDs may develop viral, fungal or microbial infections, as well as various dermatoses.
Characteristic viral diseases:
- Herpetic infections - common herpes, genital herpes, herpes zoster.
- Infections caused by HPV - papillomas, warts of different species, warts.
- Contagious mollusc;
- Erythemia caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
Characteristic diseases of the bacterial nature:
- Polymicrobial ulcerative lesions of the skin;
- Syphilis occurs atypically.
- Different types of dermatomycosis;
- Slove Lime;
- Histoplasmosis, etc.
- B-cell lymphoma;
- Kaposi's sarcoma
- Basal and melanoma.
Also, in patients with Snid often develop mixed infections, parasitic diseases( eg, Norwegian scabies) and vascular lesions( vasculitis, hemorrhages, etc.).
Often, mucous membranes( aphthouses, stomatitis), which affect nails and hair, are affected in patients.
Skin diseases in patients with Snid are characterized by an atypical course. Diseases arise in non-typical age groups, have more severe symptoms, are very poorly treated.
Diagnostic value and most common in HIV infection are the following diseases:
- Sustained candidiasis of the oral cavity;
- Kaposi's Sarcoma;
- Trimming and simple lichen;
- Papillomatosis and warts.
The complicated course of these diseases in the presence of common symptoms( weight loss, fever, weakness) can be a symptom of the development of clinical Snid.
This disease is the most characteristic skin manifestation of HIV infection. Begins the disease with the appearance on the skin of the patient of pink spots and papules. Elements of the rash gradually increase, becoming purple or dark brown.
A number of point hemorrhagic rashes are formed around the main focus of the skin. At later stages, the skin in the foci of the lesion is covered with ulcers.
Elements of rash with Kaposi's sarcoma are formed on any parts of the body, but for patients with a Snid characteristic localization of rash along the ribs and on the head.
In patients with HIV infection Kaposi's sarcoma is malignant, with a lesion of the lymph nodes and internal organs.
Very often, when it is infected with HIV, there is mucosal candidiasis, while the thoracic and oral candidiasis may be one of the symptoms of the development of Snid.
Unexpected development of candidiasis in young people who have not taken antibiotics and have not been treated with corticosteroids or cytostatics should serve as an excuse for sending the patient to an HIV test.
In patients with drowsiness, mucositis can develop, candidiasis leukoplakia, candidiasis heilitis, or atrophic candidiasis. In HIV-infected, these diseases are very difficult, often they are combined with fungal skin lesions. On the mucous membranes and skin can form deep and very painful ulcers. At later stages candidiasis abscesses on the skin and internal organs may develop.
Conventional remedies for the treatment of Candida Syndrome patients are ineffective.
Leash and skin herpetic lesions
In patients with Snid often develops multicolored lichen, and, the process is atypically widespread. Patients have marked infiltration of the skin.
Herpetic rashes in HIV-infected people can occur not only in typical places( on the lips, on the mucous membranes of the genitals) but also in any other areas of the skin. Often, numerous rashes appear in the perianal region, as well as on the limbs and trunk.
appeared bubbled rash quickly becomes the appearance of ulcers. Lesion lesions occupy large areas of skin and are extremely poorly treated. Sometimes herpes reminiscent of manifestations of chicken pox, that is, rashes appear throughout the body.
In HIV-infected people, heightened growth of papillomas and warts is often observed. As the underlying disease develops, rashes become plural, occupy large areas of the body. Conventional regimens for patients with Snid are ineffective and practically do not produce results.
The atypical course of skin diseases serves as a basis for referral to a patient for HIV testing.
Laboratory diagnostics is conducted in three stages:
- First, the fact of infection is established;
- Further, the definition of the stage of the process, and the diagnosis of secondary diseases, provoked by HIV infection is carried out.
- The last stage of the survey is the regular control of the clinical course of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment.
Treatment Techniques for
Skin diseases in HIV infection are treated according to the procedures adopted for the treatment of a particular disease. However, taking into account the fact that skin infections are more severe in the context of HIV, it may be necessary to increase the dose of used drugs and to continue the treatment course.
Simultaneously with the treatment of skin diseases, intensive antiretroviral therapy is underway. The choice of the drug is carried out by the physician depending on the patient's condition.
Today in the treatment of HIV infection include:
- Didanosine, Zalcitabine, Zidovudine - the drugs used in the early stages of treatment.
- Stavudin, Sakvinavir, Indinarn - means for the treatment of adult patients at later stages of the disease;
In addition to the use of antiretroviral drugs, anti-viral, antimicrobial, antimycotic and antitumor drugs are individually selected during the treatment of Snid. This is necessary to prevent the development of complications, including skin diseases.
Forecast and prevention of
The prognosis for HIV infection depends on the stage of disease detection. Earlier initiation of antiretroviral and symptomatic therapy can significantly extend the life span and improve its quality.
Prevention of HIV infection is to know and apply the rules of safe sex, in refusing to use drugs. When performing various medical manipulations, only disposable or sterilized equipment should be used. To exclude the transmission of a virus from mother to child, breastfeeding is prohibited.