Acne: causes, clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
- 10 Aug 19:45
- Disease Of The Skin
Comedones are seals that are formed due to clogging of the mouth of the follicles with horny masses. Comedonia is a kind of acne that occurs in a non-inflammatory form. When you enter the comedo of bacteria, an inflammatory process develops, which leads to the emergence of a papule, and later -purulent pustules.
- 1 Causes of development of
- 2 Clinical picture of
- 2.1 Acne formation with black point
- 3 Diagnosis of
- 4 Treatment of
- 4.1 Methods for removing sebaceous glands
- 4.2 Popular methods of treating
- prevention 6 Photo
Causes of development of
Our skin experiences various adverse effectsexposure - exposure to ultraviolet light, contact with various substances, etc. However, thanks to the natural process of cell renewal, the skin itself is restored.
In the presence of a condition like follicular hyperkeratosis, the process of skin renewal is violated. Darkened cells do not have time to remove from the skin, and they become much larger. Under the action produced by sebum, dead particles are glued and form a dense plug in the follicle's mouth. This tube of epithelial cells and thick sebum is formed.
If the cork partially goes outside, then the so-called open comedones are formed, and if the cork does not come out, closed comedones are formed. These formations are also called black acne or black dots. This kind of comedones is clearly visible on the skin, in places of acne formation, the skin looks "dirty" because of its black patches.
The main causes of blackheads:
- Incorrect or insufficient skin care. Comedones can be formed not only because the skin is not cleaned enough, but also because of the frequent use of makeup or cosmetics created on the basis of oils. Very harmful to the skin, if the skin is not cleansed before bedtime. As a result, many dead parts of the epidermis mixed with dust and sebum accumulate on the skin surface. This leads to the formation of a large number of blackheads.
- Genetic( hereditary) predisposition. Problem skin is an hereditary factor.
- Hormonal Crashes. Hormonal oscillations lead to increased fat production. In particular, a large number of comedones is formed with increased production of testosterone.
- A course of treatment for some medications. Especially often comedones are formed when using hormones.
- Constant stresses. Depressed mental condition, constant tension leads to changes in the composition of sebum. In addition, in stressful situations, people tend to pay much less attention to skin care.
- Complicated environmental conditions. In large cities, the air is saturated with exhaust gases and dust, this fact contributes to the active contamination of the skin, which, in turn, provokes the formation of blackheads.
- Oily Skin. People who have oily skin with large pores, especially comedones are often formed.
Clinical picture of
One of the first signs of the appearance of comedones is the coarsening of the skin, increasing its fatness and extending the time. At this stage, the formation of sebaceous tubes occurs, although the comedones themselves are not yet visible.
A seamless tube is a semi-liquid mass of white or slightly yellowish color. Gradually the cork solidifies and forms a sufficiently tight glomeruli. When the open comedones are formed, the time remains open, so air is easily penetrated into the cork. Because of the processes of oxidation and because of the ingress of dust, the upper part of the tube acquires a dark color.
As a result, open comedones are formed on the face. Externally, they look like black spots on a skin with a diameter of 0.1-2 mm. The color of the top of the stopper can range from brown to black.
Open comedones are located in the extended mouths of the hair follicles. The main localization of blackheads - the nose, forehead, chin. Rarely, comedones are formed on the skin of the cheeks, neck, and back. When squeezing the skin of black eel from it it is easy to get a stopper. Inflammation in open comedones is possible, but it happens infrequently.
The type of blackheads is determined by the composition of sebum. If it has a fairly liquid consistency, then comedones are usually small. The skin has a dense consistency, which leads to the formation of large, well-marked comedones. The caudal cap in such acne is very dense and has a sharp smell.
Acne formation with black dot
The main feature of comedones is the lack of inflammatory process. However, if the follicle enters the bacteria, inflammation and comedone transformation into purulent pimples may begin to develop. Infection can get into comedones from the skin, usually inflammatory reactions in comedones provoke anaerobic bacteria that can exist without oxygen. The sebaceous tube filling the follicles is an excellent nutrient for bacteria.
When it comes to comedonia, bacteria begin to actively multiply and isolate toxins that provoke inflammation of the sebaceous gland. Moreover, in the deeper layers the inflammation began, the more painful and more will be the acne.
Permission of the inflammatory process in comedones can occur in one of three scenarios:
- Spontaneously dissolves and disappears;
- Stubborn goes outside and breaks on its own or when pressed on the pimple;
- The nasal spray is broken inside, laceration of manure on the surrounding tissue provokes the further development of inflammation. In this case, the acne will last for a long time, while it may increase in size.
There is no difficulty diagnosing open comedones. Here are the main diagnostic features:
- Rashes have the appearance of black dots;
- No signs of inflammation;
- Typical localization - the so-called T-zone on the face( forehead, nose, chin);
- When you click on the area of the comedone, it is easy to get an envelope from it.
If there are many comedones, the patient should be referred to the endocrinologist for consultation. Maybe he needs corrective treatment. After all, if you do not fight acne, then they become more and more.
A small amount of small black comedones is a physiological norm. Treatment should be carried out only if open comedones are large or large and noticeable.
The process of treatment is as follows:
- Preventive measures that prevent the formation of new comedones;
- Removal of skin lesions already formed;
- Treatment aimed at normalizing the sebum production process;
- Regular procedures for exfoliation of the upper layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells.
- In the presence of inflammation, it is necessary to stop the process and prevent it from spreading.
Methods for removing sebaceous glands
It is not recommended to remove comedones individually, as improper actions can provoke the development of inflammation and the formation of scarring.
Removing comedones is best trusted by a cosmetologist.
Mechanical Cleaning. This is the most traumatic way of removing comedones. The skin of the face is evaporated, and then with the help of a special spoon or fingers, wrapped with sterile napkins, squeeze the contents of the comedones. After the procedure, the skin is wiped with antiseptic solutions;
Chemical Atraumatic Cleaning. This procedure involves applying a mask, which contains fruit acids that dissolve the eardrum plugs.
Different peels. This procedure is aimed at removing the surface layer of the skin. Peeling allows you not only to remove surface-mounted comedones, but also to raise the sebaceous cork, located deeply.
Ultrasonic Cleaning is carried out by a special device. This is a modern and very effective method of removing comedones.
Popular methods of treating
To remove open comedones and prevent the formation of new black dots, it is recommended that:
- Regularly make masks of sour milk or yogurt;
- Make fruit and berry masks. Removal of comedones contributes to the mask of red or white currants, strawberries, gooseberries, grapes, peaches.
- To remove comedones you can prepare an effective lotion. For cooking, mix a teaspoon of tincture of calendula, lemon juice and honey from 250 ml of water.
- Helps to get rid of black dots mask, made from soda and foam from baby or tar soap.
Prevention of the formation of black comedones involves regular and thorough skin cleansing and proper nutrition. And also in eliminating the hormonal imbalance if it is detected during the examination.
Basic preventive measures:
- A person should be washed at least twice a day. However, it's not a good idea to use ordinary cute things to do. It is necessary to buy special means for washing - cosmetic soap with a lot of moisturizers, foams and gels, selected according to the type of skin.
- For cleansing during the day it is possible to use lotions, tonics or thermal water.
- If the skin is prone to the formation of not only comedones, but also acne for cleaning, it is necessary to choose means with antibacterial supplements.
- If possible, you should refuse the use of cosmetics on a heavier butter-based basis, as these funds clog pores.
- 1-3 slave per week should be done exfoliating procedures. It is necessary to use soft-scrubs, as well as to use gels and masks containing the salicylic acid. These tools allow you to remove dead skin particles, which reduces the risk of comedones,
- . If possible, professional skin cleansing should be done periodically in cosmetic cabinets. Houses for skin cleansing can use mask film. They are applied in liquid form to the face, and after drying are removed in the form of a film, in passing removing the eardrops from pores.