Where in the human body is produced insulin, what body?
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The pancreas is a kind of "factory" where insulin is produced, which is responsible for transporting sugar from the blood to the cells of the body. This vital hormone,, supplies them with "fuel" to maintain energy balance and normal metabolism.
Table of Contents
- Cell Opening Key 2
- Survival and Hormone Deficiency 3
- Age-Finding 4 Types of Substances
Cage Key The main function of the pancreas is the production of enzymes for etching. This "work" is about 95% of its fabrics. But in its structure( mainly in the tail section) there is a cluster of unusual endocrine cells - the islets of Langerhans, named in honor of the German pathologist discovered them. Different from other cells in color, these tissues occupy about 2% of the mass of the pancreas and have about 1 million islets.
Osteal beta cells are the "tool" by which the gland produces insulin, the hormone responsible for the metabolism. Its molecule is a protein( protein) containing two amino acid chains: A and B. The chain A contains 21 amino acids, the B-chain consists of 30 disulfide bridges( a bond between two sulfur atoms).
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Insulin is bind and is recognized by a transmembrane protein( A subunit of the receptor), which acts as a signal converter that activates the reaction of enzymes. Although the biochemical effects of the interaction of the hormone receptor have not been completely studied, it is believed that this pair of proteins triggers protein kinase C - an enzyme that is involved in the processes of intracellular metabolism.
But the main function of the hormone is due to the carbohydrate metabolism. Simple or pure carbohydrates pass through the stomach and split into the small intestine. One of the sources of energy - glucose( dextrose) - is transferred in the form of glycogen from the intestine to the liver for storage. The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases. If the organism's need arises in the additional "fuel" the liver throws glucose into the blood, saturating the body with energy.
Dextrose itself can not penetrate into muscle and fat tissues, which make up two-thirds of the human cell mass and require energy for the functioning of the body. Insulin becomes a quasi-key, opens the molecules of sugar in the cell. The insulin receptor activates the intracellular mechanism by regulating the work of membrane proteins that supply glucose to tissues.
The production of the hormone is important for cardiac activity, respiration and movement, but no less significant other functions of the hormone:
- regulation and preservation of the balance of fats and proteins;
- activation of ribosomes - membrane organoids of a living cell synthesizing protein from amino acids;
- counteracting catabolic processes in muscle fibers;
- controls the use of glucose in muscle and fat cells;
- increases the activity of enzymes that stimulate the formation of glycogen - forms of glucose conservation in cells.
This means that insulin is associated with all metabolic processes in the body.
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The generally accepted norm of insulin content in the blood is considered to be in the range of 3 to 20 μC / ml. Deviation from it leads to biochemical lipid metabolism disorders with high concentration of lead triglycerides in the blood and severe metabolic decompensation( diabetic coma).
When insulin is produced in the pancreas in a limited amount or not at all, its deficiency is manifested in a metabolic disorder: the level of sugar in the blood increases. This is an autoimmune disease triggered by the human immune system. Insulin in type 1 diabetes is significantly reduced. Signs of low levels of the hormone may be identical to the elevated levels, but they are added: tremor, heartbeat, pallor, anxiety, nervousness, unconsciousness, sweating.
Type 2 diabetes occurs for another reason. Iron continues to produce insulin, but the receptivity of cells of this type of protein is lowered. As a result, the "key" is no longer able to provide full access to blood sugar in cells and create its reserves, which leads to an increase in blood sugar. The main symptoms of this type of illness are as follows:
- appearance of sugar in urine( glucosuria);
- increased blood glucose( hyperglycemia);
- increased urination( polyuria);
- increased thirst.
Diabetes is only treated with regular hormonal therapy, after careful study of the condition of the pancreas of a particular patient. For this purpose, the blood taken on an empty stomach is examined and 4 clarifying analyzes are done within 2 hours.
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During the twentieth century, scientists were looking for an opportunity to fill the lack of a hormone from the outside. By the 20s, a strict diet was used to treat diabetes, but all the search for a perfect diet was unsuccessful. In 1921, Canadian researchers managed to first obtain from the tissues of the pancreas dogs a hypoglycemic substance - insulin. Already the next year, he receives the first patient, and the pioneers of the hormone F. Banting and J. McLeod - the Nobel Prize.
After 15 years, Hans Christian Hagedorn opens the first long-term insulin-NPH insulin( Hedehorn's neutral protamine), later widely used in clinical practice. By the middle of the century, it was possible to decipher the chemical structure of the hormone from the exact sequence of amino acids, creating an insulin molecule, and after 40 years the researchers were able to determine the spatial structure of the molecule of the hormone.
In 1982, genetic engineering creates an analogue of the hormone of the human pancreas, synthesized by special non-pathogenic rodochkovidnyh bacteria, in whose genome is built up the human insulin gene. After 3 years, the first human insulin appears on the market. Previously, swine and bovine insulin were used.
The research work continued, and by the end of the century analogies of human insulin appeared, becoming more and more popular among doctors and patients. This is understandable:
Contemporary insulin therapy is based on the definition of individual doses of insulin of a specific mark, since ready hormones are different in number of injections, patterns of use, combinations of different types of insulin, delivery method of the hormone in the body. Insulin dependent patients were able to significantly improve the quality and life expectancy.
4 Types of Substance
A healthy human body produces a certain amount of insulin, which provides a constant concentration of blood sugar in the day and night. For a patient with diabetes, the required level of glucose is achieved by the introduction of drugs and adequate control.
Currently, the disease is treated with human insulin, produced synthetically or genetically, but with a biochemical structure that is identical to a hormone produced by human pancreas.
Modern types of insulin differ in their time of action:
Types of insulin
Duration of action
Ultra fast( fast)
Novorapid® Penfill®, Humalog, Apidar
from 5 to 15 minutes.
Actrapid NN, Humulin, Insuman, Rapid®
30 to 45
Protafan NM, Humulin NPH, Insulatard, Basal
Mixed forms consist of a combination of insulin short or fast with a medium-long duration. Their advantage is that the action begins quickly and prolonged in time, reducing the amount of necessary injections.
Traditional insulin therapy requires strict regulation of life, which involves the appropriate mode of intake of food and the use of fast( short-acting) insulin to absorb increased blood sugar after ingestion. Intensive insulin therapy is most closely related to the physiological secretion of insulin. Its advantages are the greater freedom of insulin-dependent in determining the dose, time of eating, the nature of physical activity, etc.