Symptoms of poliomyelitis in children
- 04 Aug 02:30
In 2015, the problem of poliomyelitis in children unfortunately became extremely relevant. It would seem that in the 21st century death from poliomyelitis should be considered absurd. Nevertheless, in Ukraine there are already cases of fatal outcome from this terrible disease.
No matter what thesedeaths are, neither doctors nor parents know. Some believe that the blame for the whole epidemic situation, due to the general refusal of parents to brush their children, others are accused of forced vaccination. Whether this really is, how polio is detected in children and what is most dangerous, inoculate or ignore the vaccine, we will deal with it together.
1. What is
Polio 2. Polio symptoms in children
polio diagnosis and treatment 4. Anti-poliomyelitis vaccine
5. Specific features of the vaccine during the
epidemic 6. Infected child after
polio vaccination 7. Possible complicationsafter vaccination
8. Instead of finding
poliomyelitis Among the acute infectious diseases affecting the infant population, poliomyelitis is one of the most dangerous. People have been aware of this disease since ancient times, but an effective one hundred percent method of treating poliomyelitis has not yet been found.
A dangerous polio with its viruses affect the human nervous system and, first of all, the spinal cord that causes paralysis of the limbs. It can be said that the virus attacks nerve cells, the functioning of which can lead to paralysis.
If the poliomyelitis becomes severe, the disease can lead to a patient's breathing stops. Children and adolescents most susceptible to the disease.
Polio-causing agent is an intestinal virus, the main habitat of which is dirty fruits, vegetables, unwashed hands, sewage, and other places with a polluted environment.
Infections can be transmitted by humans, animals and even insects. From person to person, the poliomyelitis virus can be transmitted by airborne drip and through contaminated faeces, as well as through direct and indirect contact( ie through household items, utensils, linen, etc.).The optimum temperature of the medium for spreading the infection is 37 degrees.
Symptoms of Polio in Children
A poliovirus infection may have symptoms of varying degrees of severity. Each child can tolerate poliomyelitis in different ways.
For example, most people do not have any symptoms at all, in this case they refer to asymptomatic infection. In general, signs and symptoms of poliomyelitis differ depending on the form of the disease.
Polio is a serious disease, which in less than 1% of infected cases causes paralysis. In a small number of cases, the disease causes symptoms similar to the flu, but does not lead to paralysis( non paralytic poliomyelitis).Forms of paralytic poliomyelitis can also cause symptoms that mimic the flu.
With both forms of illness, the patient may experience sore throat, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, fever and even vomiting.
Although poliomyelitis most often affects children under the age of 3, polyovirus can affect people of absolutely any age.
When a person develops a paralytic form of poliomyelitis, his symptoms become more serious. Spreading on nerve tissue, polyovirus destroys nerve fibers that control muscle activity. The infection becomes fatal if the brain's membranes and respiratory organs affect the patient.
Signs and symptoms of poliomyelitis depend on the form of the disease. There are several forms of the disease. The severity of the disease is divided into three types of : mild, moderate and severe severity. Moreover, the severity of symptoms of poliomyelitis can have on the severity of intoxication and motor disorders. By type, poliomyelitis is typical and atypical.
Typical forms of are divided into paralytic and non paralytic, and the atypical is erased and asymptomatic. By the nature of the course of the disease is also divided into two types: smooth and nonsmooth, that is, it occurs with complications, the imposition of a secondary infection or exacerbation of chronic diseases.
Due to vaccination, the spread of poliomyelitis has almost completely eliminated the disease for many years. And only now, when many parents are opponents of prophylactic vaccinations for children aged from birth to 6 years old( according to the calendar of preventive vaccinations, for children), poliomyelitis has returned to frequent infectious diseases, and even in some countries spread to the onset of epidemiological situations.
The polio of is characterized by a mild and short-term course of the disease in one or more of the symptoms of the disease. These include an increase in body temperature to 39.5 degrees, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, sore throat, abdomen, general malaise, problems with the chair.
Non-paralytic polio includes symptoms of poliomyelitis, but headaches, nausea and vomiting may be much more pronounced. In the early days, the signs of the disease may be pronounced, but after a couple of days they grow, causing muscle pain and stiffness in the neck and along the spine.
The paralytic polio of combines signs of all previous types of disease. In addition, the symptoms may include generalized muscle weakness, severe constipation, muscle atrophy, weakening of the breath, difficulty in swallowing, weak cough.
The skin may also be reddened or covered with spots, the voice becomes hoarse, there is a paralysis of the bladder, muscle paralysis, irritability, during saliva, bloating. Paralytic poliomyelitis may have a certain percentage of fatalities.
Diagnosis and treatment of poliomyelitis
A physician may suspect a child of poliomyelitis if he has symptoms and symptoms typical of the disease, such as stiff neck muscles, shortness of breath, numbness of the limbs, cervical muscles, spine, and fever, nausea, vomiting, pain in the throat or stomach, violation of the chair.
In this case, the child needs to undergo a blood test to detect antibodies to the poliomyelitis virus and feces analysis. To confirm the diagnosis, a fluid sample is needed to surround the spinal cord, samples from the throat and the spinal cord itself.
Polyamyelitis is not curable, so the only way to prevent the disease is through timely prophylactic vaccination, which ensures effective immunization of children from infection with polyovirus.
Unfortunately, today there is no medicine that can be cured of poliomyelitis, so all the therapy is aimed at maintaining the body of the patient.
The main purpose of treatment is to improve the chances of a patient recovering. This kind of treatment helps to minimize discomfort from the disease and prevent the development of complications.
Supportive care may include medicines to reduce the symptoms of poliomyelitis, for the relief of respiration, and also includes a list of special physical exercises and a balanced diet.
For the prevention of poliomyelitis, there are two types of vaccine: IPV( inactivated polio vaccine) and OPV( oral polio vaccine).
The inactivated polio vaccine produces antibodies in the blood for all three types of poliomyelitis virus. In the case of infection, these antibodies help prevent the spread of the virus to the central nervous system and protect the child from paralysis. The
IPV does not have a "live" component, it contains viable fragments of the virus that are safe for the baby's body but are capable of activating the immune system for the production of appropriate antibodies. This is the advantage of an inactivated oral vaccine.
The disadvantages include the fact that the IPV induces a low level of immunity in the intestine, which makes it possible to spread the virus through faeces of the child-carrier virus. The vaccine is injected, requiring appropriate training of medical staff and the use of sterile injection equipment and procedures. In addition, IPV costs about 5 times more expensive than an OPV vaccine.
The oral poliovirus vaccine produces antibodies in the blood for all three types of poliomyelitis virus. In the case of infection, these antibodies protect against paralysis by preventing the spread of wild poliovirus to the nervous system.
OPV gives a local immune response in the intestinal mucous membranes. In the case of infection, these antibodies can restrict the replication of wild polyovirus inside the intestine.
The use of OPV is able to quickly stop the spread of wild poliovirus from person to person, which is why this type of vaccine is used in the case of forced vaccination of children during the epidemiological spread of infection.
OPV is injected into the body orally. Therefore, the vaccination does not require special training of medical staff and the use of injection equipment. Oral vaccine is relatively inexpensive, safe and effective.
Global vaccination against poliomyelitis annually saves between two and three million children.
During several weeks after vaccination, the vaccine virus breeds in the intestines, excreted with feces and can spread to other children at a closer contact. This means that in case of poor sanitation, IPO immunization can lead to "passive" immunization of children who have not been directly vaccinated.
Unfortunately, in very rare cases, the opiate polio vaccine may cause paralysis caused by immune deficiency. Therefore, for weak, often sick children, an inactivated vaccine is usually used during prophylactic vaccinations.
According to the calendar of prophylactic vaccine against poliomyelitis, children should be vaccinated with an inactivated IPV vaccine in the following ages:
- in 2 months;
- in 3 months;
- in 4 months;
- in 18 months;
- at 6 years.
Features of vaccination during the epidemic of
The emergence of an epidemiological situation is a comprehensive responsibility of both the state and parents. First, do not strive to pursue a state policy in the field of vaccination, the latter because of inexperience, ignorance and fears refuse to carry out preventive vaccinations for their children.
Despite the fact that there is an epidemic or not, parents have a choice: to agree or not to agree to vaccination against poliomyelitis. And this is the main point - all parents want their child healthy, but fear of the quality of the proposed vaccine takes its place.
Parents refuse to vaccinate their children and this is their right. But this is the commitment of these parents to the parents of other children, because sometimes there are cases when, due to unpaid vaccination, the child becomes ill and risks the infection of other children attending a school, kindergarten, circle or section.
In the event of an epidemiological situation, the following algorithm is generally accepted. As you know, the vaccination of children against poliomyelitis begins with an inactivated vaccine( IPV).If the child has already been inoculated, during the period of compulsory vaccination, because of the danger of epidemiological infection, the child is vaccinated with a "live" oral vaccine( OPV) in three rounds with an interval of one month.
If a child has not received a polio vaccine before, then in the first two rounds he is required to receive an inactivated IPV vaccine at intervals of one month to ensure that his body has managed to develop immunity to a live virus, and the third round of the child is vaccinated with OPV.
Infectious baby after polio vaccine
How infectious a child is difficult to judge after vaccination against polio polymyolitis, but there is a risk fraction present. That is why in kindergartens and other kindergartens where vaccination of children is carried out, it is recommended to limit the contact of vaccinated and non-vaccinated children for a period of 2 months.
To ensure a kind of quarantine, non-grafting children( fortunately, such children are in the minority), it is advisable or not to attend a children's institution or to visit groups with the same non-grafting children for a quarantine period.
When inactivated vaccine against poliomyelitis is administered, quarantine is not performed because the vaccine is not "live" and does not pose any threat to non-grafted children.
Possible complications after vaccination with
In most cases, vaccination against polyovirus is well and has no consequences or complications. The risks of the development of any serious pathologies after vaccination are extremely small and in most cases do not cause any harm to the child.
In some children, a vaccine may be delayed for a while after being vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine.
In case of vaccination with the "live" oral vaccine( as with IPV vaccination), a local reaction of the body may occur, expressed in a slight increase in the body temperature of the child, a general weakness, the appearance of non-severe abdominal pain. As a rule, these signs disappear independently within 1-2 days after vaccination.
In extremely rare cases, vaccination against poliomyelitis may cause the development of a vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Usually, such a complication is observed in 1 out of 1000 cases among the newly vaccinated children. As a rule, the risk group includes children with a congenital HIV virus, congenital malformations of the digestive system. To reduce the risk of developing the disease, such children are only inactivated by vaccine.
Instead of concluding
Instigate or not to squeeze your child - the personal affair and the personal rights of each parent. But it should be understood that the refusal of vaccination leads to the fact that each year the risk of developing an epidemiological situation in a country with a different infectious viral disease increases and poses a danger not only to its child, but also to other children.
In order to avoid possible complications, it is advisable to treat the vaccine responsibly, examine the child on the eve of the vaccination, and follow the elementary regimen of the vaccine period.